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Government job is a dream of almost everybody in the country. Government teaching job is a very reputed profession with ever increasing jobs in India. Every year , Government announces various teaching posts at primary , secondary levels .Given below are the details of various Government Teaching Exams which can help you to achieve your dream of government job. There are three levels of teaching jobs which are PRT, TGT, & PGT. Primary teacher (PRT) can teach from one to **5th level**, the Trained Graduate Teacher (TGT) can teach up to **10th level**, & PGT (Post Graduate Teacher ) can teach up to **12th level**.

18th Aug 2021

09:00 AM -1:00 PM

Bansal Academy

- Running Batches
- Upcoming Batches

**Running Batch**

**IBPS BANK PO/SO****PATWARI MAINS****SSC****POLICE ( HEAD CONSTABLE , SUB INSPECTOR )****TET PAPER 1 & 2****CSIR NET ( PHYSICAL SCIENCE , CHEMICAL SCIENCE , LIFE SCIENCE , MATHEMATICS )****MASTER CADRE ( PHYSICS , CHEMISTRY , MATHEMATICS , ZOOLOGY , BOTONY )****LECTURER CADRE ( PHYSICS , CHEMISTRY , MATHEMATICS , ZOOLOGY , BOTONY )****COLLEGE CADRE ( PHYSICS , CHEMISTRY , MATHEMATICS , ZOOLOGY , BOTONY )**

**UPCOMING BATCHES** :

**MASTER CADRE PHYSICS , CHEMISTRY , MATHEMATICS , ZOOLOGY , BOTONY****LECTURER CADRE PHYSICS , CHEMISTRY , MATHEMATICS , ZOOLOGY , BOTONY****COLLEGE CADRE PHYSICS , CHEMISTRY , MATHEMATICS , ZOOLOGY , BOTONY****SBI ( CLERK , ASST. , O GRADE )****IDBI BANK****RRB BANK****IBPS CLERK****CSIR NET ( PHYSICAL SCIENCE , CHEMICAL SCIENCE , LIFE SCIENCE )****SSC****CDS/ NDA/CLAT****PGT / SET / TEACHING COURSES****DEFENCE**

**Proper Learning And implementation .****Flexible Doubt Sessions****Individual attention to every student after strenth analysis****Study in Competitive atmosphere****Weekly Revision Classes****Quick grasping of concept**

**Lower associated costs with same avality content****Golden oppurtunity for those who are socially anxious****Classes can be fit into any work schedule****One to one interaction with teachers through our Bansal Academ's Teq App Live doubt classes.****24×7 Availability of teachers on whatsapp .****Pdf Notes , Online test series , recorded video lectures will be provided**

At Bansal Academy we will cover these subjects so you can crack exam in first attempt

- ENGLISH
- REASONING
- APTITUDE
- MATHEMATICS

**Structure of CTET**

** **There are two papers Paper I and Paper II:-

Paper I is for the person who intends to be a teacher for the classes I to V.

Paper II is for the person who intends to be a teacher for classes VI to VIII.

All questions are multiple choice questions, given with the four options in which one is the correct answer. Every correct question carries one mark. There is no negative marking.

* There are 150 objective questions.

* The time duration is 2 hours 30 minutes.

* The test is conducted in 20 languages and has multiple objective questions.

* Both the paper have different eligibility.

(Note: a person who intends to be a teacher in both levels have to appear in both the papers).

**Exam Pattern**

** ****Paper I:**

Paper II:** **

**SYLLABUS**

Level of the exam | Detailed Pdf Link |

Paper I | Download Here |

Paper II | Download Here |

Paper I (For Classes I to IV) Primary Stage

** ****I- CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PEDAGOGY 30 QUESTIONS**** **

**a) Child Development (Primary School Child) 15 Questions**

- Language & Thought
- Individual differences among learners, understanding differences based on diversity of language, caste, gender, community, religion etc
- The Concepts of child-centered and progressive education
- The Concept of development and its relationship with learning
- Principles of the development of children
- The Distinction between Assessment for learning and assessment of learning; School – Based Assessment, Continuous & Comprehensive Evaluation: perspective and practice
- Influence of Heredity & Environment
- Socialization processes: Social world & children (Teacher, Parents, Peers)
- Piaget, Kohlberg, and Vygotsky: constructs and critical perspectives.
- Critical perspective of the construct of Intelligence
- Multi-Dimensional Intelligence
- Gender as a social construct; gender roles, gender-bias and educational practice
- Formulating appropriate questions for assessing readiness levels of learners; for enhancing learning and critical thinking in the classroom and for assessing learner achievement.

**b) The Concept of Inclusive education and understanding children with special needs 5 Questions**

- Addressing the Talented, Creative, Specially abled Learners
- Addressing the needs of children with learning difficulties, ‘impairment’ etc.
- Addressing learners from diverse backgrounds including disadvantaged and deprived

**c) Learning and Pedagogy 10 Questions**

- Child as a problem solver and a ‘scientific investigator’
- Alternative conceptions of learning in children, understanding children’s ‘errors’ as significant steps in the learning process.
- How children think and learn; how and why children ‘fail’ to achieve success in school performance.
- Basic processes of teaching and learning; children’s strategies of learning; learning as a social activity; social context of learning.
- Cognition & Emotions
- Factors contributing to learning
- Motivation and learning
- personal & environmental

**LANGUAGE I 30 QUESTIONS**

** **

**a) Language Comprehension 15 Questions**

Reading unseen passages – two passages one prose or drama and one poem with questions on comprehension, inference, grammar and verbal ability (Prose passage may be literary, scientific, narrative or discursive)

**b) Pedagogy of Language Development 15 Questions**

- Challenges of teaching language in a diverse classroom; language difficulties, errors and disorders
- Learning and acquisition
- Language Skills
- Principles of Language Teaching
- Role of listening and speaking; function of language and how children use it as a tool
- Teaching-learning materials: Textbook, multi-media materials, multilingual resource of the classroom
- A Critical perspective on the role of grammar in learning a language for communicating ideas verbally and in written form
- Remedial Teaching
- Evaluating language comprehension and proficiency: speaking, listening, reading and writing

**III. LANGUAGE – II 30 QUESTIONS**

** **

**a) Comprehension 15 Questions**

Two unseen prose passages (discursive or literary or narrative or scientific) with a question on comprehension, grammar, and verbal ability

**b) Pedagogy of Language Development 15 Questions**

- Challenges of teaching language in a diverse classroom; language difficulties, errors and disorders
- Learning and acquisition
- Role of listening and speaking; the function of language and how children use it as a tool
- Teaching-learning materials: Textbook, multi-media materials, multilingual resource of the classroom
- A Critical perspective on the role of grammar in learning a language for communicating ideas verbally and in written form;
- Principles of Language Teaching
- Language Skills
- Evaluating language comprehension and proficiency: speaking, listening, reading and writing
- Remedial Teaching

**MATHEMATICS 30 QUESTIONS****a) Content15 Questions**

- Data Handling
- Division
- Geometry
- Measurement
- Shapes & Spatial Understanding
- Volume
- Patterns
- Solids around Us
- Numbers
- Addition and Subtraction
- Multiplication
- Weight
- Time
- Money

**b) Pedagogical issues 15 Questions**

- Language of Mathematics
- Nature of Mathematics/Logical thinking; understanding children’s thinking and reasoning patterns and strategies of making meaning and learning
- Problems of Teaching
- Place of Mathematics in Curriculum
- Evaluation through formal and informal methods
- Community Mathematics
- Diagnostic and Remedial Teaching
- Error analysis and related aspects of learning and teaching

**ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 30 QUESTIONS**

** **

**a) Content 15 Questions**

- Relationships
- Work and Play
- Family and Friends:
- Water
- Food
- Animals
- Shelter
- Travel
- Plants
- Things We Make and Do

**b) Pedagogical Issues 15 Questions**

- Concept and scope of EVS
- Significance of EVS, integrated EVS
- Environmental Studies & Environmental Education
- Learning Principles
- Scope & relation to Science & Social Science
- Problems
- Approaches of presenting concepts
- Activities
- Experimentation/Practical Work
- Discussion
- CCE
- Teaching material/Aids

**Paper II (For Classes VI to VIII) Elementary Stage**

** **

**CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PEDAGOGY 30 QUESTIONS**

** **

**a) Child Development (Elementary School Child) 15 Questions**

- Work and Play
- Concept of development and its relationship with learning
- Piaget, Kohlberg and Vygotsky: constructs and critical perspectives
- Principles of the development of children
- Influence of Heredity & Environment
- Language & Thought
- Socialization processes: Social world & children (Teacher, Parents, Peers)
- Concepts of child -centered and progressive education
- Individual differences among learners, understanding differences based on diversity of language, caste, gender, community, religion etc.
- Critical perspective of the construct of Intelligence
- Multi-Dimensional Intelligence
- Gender as a social construct; gender roles, gender-bias and educational practice
- Formulating appropriate questions for assessing readiness levels of learners; for enhancing learning and critical thinking in the classroom and for assessing learner achievement.
- Distinction between Assessment for learning and assessment of learning; School-Based Assessment, Continuous & Comprehensive Evaluation: perspective and practice

**b) Concept of Inclusive education and understanding children with special needss 5 Questions**

- Addressing the Talented, Creative, Specially abled Learners.
- Addressing learners from diverse backgrounds including disadvantaged and deprived
- Addressing the needs of children with learning difficulties, ‘impairment’ etc.

**c) Learning and Pedagogy10 Questions**

- How children think and learn; how and why children ‘fail’ to achieve success in school performance.
- Alternative conceptions of learning in children, understanding children’s ‘errors’ as significant steps in the learning process.
- Factors contributing to learning – personal & environmental
- Basic processes of teaching and learning; children’s strategies of learning; learning as a social activity; social context of learning.
- Motivation and learning
- Child as a problem solver and a ‘scientific investigator’
- Cognition & Emotions

**LANGUAGE I 30 QUESTIONS**

** **

**a) Language Comprehension 15 Questions**

Reading unseen passages – two passages one prose or drama and one poem with questions on comprehension, inference, grammar and verbal ability (Prose passage may be literary, scientific, narrative or discursive)

**b) Pedagogy of Language Development 15 Questions**

- Remedial Teaching
- Learning and acquisition
- Challenges of teaching language in a diverse classroom; language difficulties, errors and disorders
- Principles of language Teaching
- Critical perspective on the role of grammar in learning a language for communicating ideas verbally and in written form
- Role of listening and speaking; function of language and how children use it as a tool
- Evaluating language comprehension and proficiency: speaking, listening, reading and writing
- Teaching- learning materials: Textbook, multi-media materials, multilingual resource of the classroom

**III. LANGUAGE-II 30 QUESTIONS**

** **

**a) Comprehension 15 Questions**

Two unseen prose passages (discursive or literary or narrative or scientific) with question on comprehension, grammar and verbal ability

**b) Pedagogy of Language Development 15 Questions**

- Learning and acquisition
- Language Skills
- Principles of language Teaching
- Remedial Teaching
- Role of listening and speaking; function of language and how children use it as a tool
- Evaluating language comprehension and proficiency: speaking, listening, reading and writing
- Critical perspective on the role of grammar in learning a language for communicating ideas verbally and in written form
- Challenges of teaching language in a diverse classroom; language difficulties, errors and disorders
- Teaching – learning materials: Textbook, multi-media materials, multilingual resource of the classroom

**MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE 60 QUESTIONS**

** **

**(i) Mathematics 30 Questions**

**a) Content 20 Questions**

- Number System
- Negative Numbers and Integers
- Knowing our Numbers
- Playing with Numbers
- Fractions
- Whole Numbers
- Algebra
- Ratio and Proportion
- Introduction to Algebra
- Geometry
- Basic geometrical ideas (2-D)
- Understanding Elementary Shapes (2-D and 3-D)
- Symmetry: (reflection)
- Data handling
- Mensuration

**b) Pedagogical issues 10 Questions**

- Community Mathematics
- Nature of Mathematics/Logical thinking
- Language of Mathematics
- Place of Mathematics in Curriculum
- Problem of Teaching
- Evaluation
- Remedial Teaching

**i) Science 30 Questions****a) Content 20 Questions**

- Food
- Cleaning food
- Sources of food
- Components of food
- Materials
- Materials of daily use
- Moving Things People and Ideas
- The World of the Living
- How things work
- Magnets
- Electric current and circuits
- Natural Resources
- Natural Phenomena
**b) Pedagogical issues 10 Questions**- Nature & Structure of Sciences
- Text Material/Aids
- Natural Science/Aims & objectives
- Evaluation – cognitive/psychomotor/affective
- Innovation
- Understanding & Appreciating Science
- Approaches/Integrated Approach
- Observation/Experiment/Discovery (Method of Science)
- Remedial Teaching
- Problems
**SOCIAL STUDIES/SOCIAL SCIENCES 60 QUESTIONS**

** **

**a) Content 40 Questions**

**HISTORY**

- When, Where and How
- The First Cities
- The Earliest Societies
- New Ideas
- The First Farmers and Herders
- Early States
- The First Empire
- Contacts with Distant lands
- Political Developments
- Sultans of Delhi
- Creation of an Empire
- Culture and Science
- New Kings and Kingdoms
- Regional Cultures
- Architecture
- Social Change
- The Establishment of Company Power
- Rural Life and Society
- Women and reform
- Colonialism and Tribal Societies
- The Revolt of 1857-58
- The Nationalist Movement
- Challenging the Caste System
- India After Independence

**GEOGRAPHY :**

- Globe
- Planet: Earth in the solar system
- Geography as a social study and as a science
- Environment in its totality: natural and human environment
- Water
- Air
- Resources: Types-Natural and Human
- Human Environment: settlement, transport and communication
- Agriculture

**Social and Political Life**

- Government
- Diversity
- Local Government
- Making a Living
- Agriculture
- Democracy
- State Government
- The Judiciary
- Understanding Media
- Social Justice and the Marginalised
- Unpacking Gender
- The Constitution

**b) Pedagogical issues 20 Questions**

- Concept & Nature of Social Science/Social Studies
- Developing Critical thinking
- Enquiry/Empirical Evidence
- Class Room Processes, activities and discourse
- Sources – Primary & Secondary
- Problems of teaching Social Science/Social Studies
- Evaluation
- Projects Work

**Exam Pattern and Syllabus for Himachal Pradesh TET**

** **

**Examination Pattern for Classes I-V (Primary Stage):**

Candidates who want to become teacher of lower primary school i.e. classes 1 to 5 is come under exam category of HPTET 1.

**Language 1:** 30 Mark 30 Questions

**Language 2:** 30 Mark 30 Questions

**Child Development and Pedagogy:** 30 Mark 30 Questions

**Environmental Studies:** 30 Marks 30 Questions

**Mathematics:** 30 Mark 30 Questions

**Total 150 Mark 150 Questions**

**Examination Pattern for Classes VI-VII (Primary Stage):**

Candidates who want to go for upper primary school i.e. classes 6 to 8 is come under exam category of HPTET 2.

**Language 1**: 30 Mark 30 Questions

**Language 2** :30 Mark 30 Questions

**Child Development and Pedagogy:** 30 Mark 30 Questions

**For Social Studies and Social Science:** 60 Marks 60 Questions

**For Mathematics and Science:** 60 Marks 60 Questions

**Total 150 Mark 150 Questions**

**KVS Recruitment 2021: **KVS Recruitment notification will be released soon on its official website @kvsangathan.nic.in. Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (KVS) is responsible to conduct the examination to appoint candidates for teaching and non-teaching posts. It includes Post Graduates Teachers (PGTs), Trained Graduate Teachers (TGTs), and Primary Teachers (PRTs). In this article, interested candidates can check their eligibility criteria, dates, vacancy, selection process, and application form in the given article.

**KVS 2021 Overview :**

KVS Recruitment 2021 brief details are tabulated below:

**KVS Recruitment 2021 :**

KVS recruitment 2021 notice is going to be released by Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan anytime. KVS has given information in an RTI reply that this year KVS recruitment will be going to fill around 7,470 teaching posts, out of which there will be 3324 for PRT, 2793 for TGT, and 1353 for PGT posts. In 2018, the KVS exam was held in the month of December for the recruitment of a total of 8000+ Vacancies for PGT/ TGT/ PRT posts. Interested candidates can check their eligibility, dates, vacancy, selection, and application form. Read further to know more about KVS Exam 2021.

KVS Apply Online 2021 Link: [To Be Active Soon]

**KVS 2021 Exam Date :**

The **KVS Recruitment 2021** notice and **the exam date** of the KVS exam are not yet released for the post of TGT, PGT, and other teaching posts. The Online Registration for the KVS Exam tentatively starts in August 2021. KVS 2021 notification PDF for PGT/PRT/TGT contains all information regarding KVS Recruitment like Eligibility Criteria, Number of Vacancies, syllabus & Age limit, etc. We request you to keep a check on the KVS official site & also keep visiting Bansal Academy website for latest updates.

**KVS Recruitment 2021, Apply Online :**

KVS Apply Online link is to be active when KVS Notification will be officially released by the KVS officials. The steps to fill the KVS Online Application Form are provided below.

- Visit the official website of KVS.
- Click on the link for “Apply online for KVS” on the home page itself.
- Register yourself first, using a valid phone number.
- Now, log in using the registration details.
- Fill up the application form as per the official documents.
- Now, submit the application form.
- Pay the application fee as per your category.
- Don’t forget to print the application receipt for reference.

**KVS 2021, Application Fee :**

- Rs 1500/- for Principal & Vice Principal
- Rs 1000/- for PGT’s
- Rs 1000/- for TGT’s

**KVS Recruitment 2021: Eligibility Criteria**

**Educational Qualification For KVS PGT**

- Master’s Degree from a recognized university with at least 50% marks.
- BEd or equivalent degree from a recognized university.
- Proficiency in teaching via Hindi and English media.

**Educational Qualification For KVS TGT**

- Bachelor’s Degree with at least 50% marks in the concerned subjects/combination of subjects and in aggregate.
- BEd or equivalent degree from a recognized university.
- Qualified in the CTET Paper II by CBSE.
- Proficiency in teaching Hindi and English media.

**KVS 2021 Age Limit :**

**KVS Exam Pattern 2021 :**

The exam pattern of KVS TGT, PGT & PRT Teacher Recruitment 2021 is as under :

**KVS PGT Exam pattern : **

**KVS TGT Exam pattern : **

**KVS PRT Exam pattern :**

**Syllabus and exam pattern :**

**SYLLABUS OF OPTIONAL SUBJECTS ( Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Mathematics )**

Subject | Detailed PDF |

Chemistry | Download Here |

Physics | Download Here |

Biology | Download Here |

Mathematics | Download Here |

**CHEMISTRY**

**1.) Some Basic concepts of Chemistry: **Scope of chemistry- Historical approach to nature of matter – states of matter, properties of matter and its measurement, S. I system of units, Uncertainty in measurements, dimensional analysis, Laws of chemical combination, atomic and molecular masses.

**2.) States of Matter:**

Gases, liquids and solids, three states of matter, types of intermolecular forces. The laws governing ideal gas behaviour, Dalton’s law of partial pressure, the Kinetic molecular theory of ideal gases, Maxwell Boltzmann distribution law on molecular motion. Liquid and their properties. Solids: Classification of solids, fundamental types of lattices, two and three-dimensional lattice types, Simple crystal structures, Transformation of crystal structure on varying temperature, Bragg’s law, density in solids, energy band.

**3.)**** Structure of Atom:**

Structure of Atom (Classical Theory), Dalton’s atomic theory, Bohr’s model of atom, Structure of atom (modern theory), de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, Classical wave equation, Schrödinger’s wave equation, Probability distribution curve, Quantum numbers,

**4.)**** Equilibrium:**

Reversible reactions, criteria of equilibrium, Law of mass action, the equilibrium constant, Kc and Kp, Le Chatelier principle, Ionic equilibrium, Ostwald’s dilution Law, a solution of acids, bases, ionic equilibria in solution, Common ion effect – its application to qualitative analysis, acids and bases, Bronsted- Lowry theory of acids and bases, Lewis concept of acid and bases, relative strengths of acids and bases, their quantitative estimation, buffer solution and its use.

**5.)**** Surface Chemistry:**

Adsorption, absorption, sorption, Physical adsorption, Chemisorption adsorption, isotherms (Freundlich, Langmuir), application of adsorption, types of Catalysis theories of catalysis, classification of colloids, preparation of Colloidal Solution.

**6.) ****Chemical Kinetics:**

Theories of reaction rates, the rate of reaction, molecularity and order of reaction, Fast reactions- Luminescence and energy transfer process, reaction mechanisms (Simple and complex reactions).

**7.)**** Redox Reaction and Electrochemistry:**

Oxidation and reduction, redox reaction and its application, oxidation number, Strong and weak electrolytes, activity coefficient, conductance and conductivity, Kohlrausch law, resistance and resistivity molar conductivity, equivalent conductivity, Qualitative and quantitative aspect of electrolysis.

**8.) ****Solutions:**

Solution and its types, expression of concentration of the solution, solubility and factors affecting the solubility of a solid in a liquid (temperature and pressure), Vapour pressure of a liquid, Raoult’s law for both volatile and non-volatile solute

**9.) ****Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure:**

Valence electrons and Lewis structures, Ionic bond, Covalent bond, Bond parameters, Co-ordinate bond, polarity and dipole moment, Quantitative idea of – valence bond theory, molecular orbital theory (LCAO), Concept of hybridization involving s, p, d orbitals, Hydrogen bond, Resonance.

**10.) ****Thermodynamics:**

Macroscopic properties of the system, modes of transfer of energy between system and surrounding, Phase transition, phase rule and phase diagram, First Law, second law and third law, of thermodynamics.

**11.) ****Hydrogen:**

The position of Hydrogen in the periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, Preparation of hydrogen, on the small and commercial scale, hydrides, water, hard and soft water, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen economy, hydrogen as a fuel.

**12.) ****General principles and processes of isolation of elements and s – block elements:**

Principles and methods of extraction, oxidation and reduction as applied to the extraction procedures of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe.

**13.) ****p – Block Elements:**

Electronic configuration, variation in physical and chemical properties of groups 13 to 18, physical and chemical properties of borax, boric acid, boron hydride, silicones, preparation and uses, preparation, properties and uses of nitrogen.

**14.) ****Co-ordination Compounds and organometallics:**

Meaning of coordination compounds, Werner’s theory, ligands – their types, IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds, isomerism, bonding in coordination compounds, colour, magnetic properties and, stabilities of coordination compounds.

**15.) Some basic concepts of ****Organic Chemistry:**

Some Basic Principles and Techniques: General Classification of organic compounds, Shapes of organic compounds-Hybridisation (sp, sp2, sp3), Structural representation of organic molecules, Functional groups, Homologous, series. Common or trivial names, nomenclature of aliphatic, aromatic and substituted aromatic compounds.

**16.) Isomerism:**Structural and Stereoisomerism Fundamental Concepts in

**17.) Reaction Mechanism:**Cleavage of a covalent bond, Types of attacking species, electron movement in organic reactions, electronic displacement in a covalent bond and types of organic reactions. Methods of purification of organic compounds: Qualitative analysis, Quantitative analysis., estimation of the elements and determination of empirical and molecular formula.

**18.) ****Environmental Chemistry:**

Environmental pollution, Atmospheric pollution, Tropospheric pollution (Air pollution), Major air pollutants, Control of air pollution, Smog (Chemical and Photochemical smog), Stratospheric pollution: Ozone layer and its depletion, Acid rain, Green House Effect and Global warming, Water pollution, Soil pollution and Industrial waste.

**19.) ****Haloalkanes and Haloarenes:**

Classification, methods of preparation of haloalkanes and haloarenes, their physical properties, tests to distinguish between alkyl and aryl halides, mechanism of SN1 and SN2 reactions, elimination reactions (Saytzeff Rule, E1 & E2 mechanism). Poly halogen compounds: Preparation and properties.

**20.) ****Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers:**

Classification, preparation, properties and uses, tests to distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. Distinctions between alcohols and phenols. Preparation of ethers, physical and chemical properties.

**PHYSICS**

- Physical World and Measurement
- Kinematics
- Laws of Motion
- Work, Energy and Power
- Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
- Gravitation
- Properties of Bulk Matter
- Thermodynamics
- Oscillations and Waves
- Electrostatics
- Current Electricity
- Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
- Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
- Optics
- Modern Physics
- Electronic device

BIOLOGY

**BIOLOGY**

**The diversity of the living world :**

Taxonomic aids, keys, specimen management; a Systematic and binomial system of nomenclature; Classification of living organisms (five kingdom classification, major groups and principles of classification within each group); General description of monera, protozoa, fungi, algae, bryophytes.

**Structural organisation in plants and animals:**

Morphology, Anatomy and histology of angiosperms: Root, stem, leaf, flower, inflorescence, fruits and seeds, Tissues: Meristematic and permanent (epidermal, ground, vascular). Cambial activity, secondary growth, type of wood.

**Structural and functional organization of cell:**

Cell cycle, detailed study of Cell division (mitosis, meiosis); Cell death; Structure and function (metabolism) of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids; Enzymology: Classification and nomenclature of enzymes; Structure; Mechanism of action.

**Plant physiology:**

Water relations: Properties of water, water in tissues and cells, Transport of water and solutes( food, nutrients, gases): Transport across cell membrane; soil-plant-atmosphere continuum; Minerals required by plant, their absorbable form, functions, deficiency symptoms, essentiality of mineral, N2 metabolism, biological fixation; Cellular Metabolism: Gluconeogenesis, Glycogenesis and glycogenolysis, hormonal regulation; Oxidation of food, respiratory efficiency of various food components.

**Human biology:**

Morphology, Anatomy, Histology, Physiology, Control and Disorders of Digestion, Respiration, Body fluids and Circulation, Excretion, Skeleton system & muscle, Nervous; Physiology of high altitude.

**Sexual Reproduction:**

Plants: Structural details of angiospermic flower, development of gametophytes, pollination and its types, agencies of pollination, pollen-pistil interaction, fertilization, Artificial hybridization (emasculation and bagging) development of seed and fruit; Apomixis and Polyembryony; Self-incompatibility: Structural and biochemical aspects; methods to overcome incompatibility; Experimental Embryology;

** Human Reproduction:**Morphology, Anatomy, Histology and Physiology of reproduction; Neuro-endocrine control; Sexual behaviour in infancy, pre-adolescence, adolescence and of adult; Implantation, Pregnancy and Parturition; Mammary gland and Lactation; Infantile mammary gland, pubertal changes in the mammary gland.

**Genetics:**

Principles of Inheritance and Variation: Mendelian genetics, Inheritance of one gene, two genes, post mendelian inheritance; Recombination frequency, chromosomal theory of inheritance; Drosophila genetics, linkage and recombinations; Mutation :General properties of mutations ; Adaptation versus mutation ; molecular basis of gene mutation: DNA repair mechanisms; Pedigree analysis; Human karyotype-banding; genetic and environmental basis of sex determination, Y- and X-linked genes; Numerical and Structural abnormalities of human chromosomes and related syndromes; Human metabolic disorders.

**Biology in Human welfare:**

Health and disease; types of diseases, common diseases in humans; Immunology – Innate and Acquired immunity; Passive and active immunization; Organization and structure of lymphoid organ; Cells of the immune system and their differentiation; Lymphocyte traffic; Nature of immune response; Structure and Functions of antibodies: Antigen-Antibody interactions; Humoral immune response; Cell mediated immunity ; Immunological memory ; Auto-immunity; Allergies; HLA system in human:MHC haplotypes; Transplantation types and problems; Immunodeficiency disorders; etiology of HIV; types, genetics and biochemistry of cancer; Drugs and alcohol abuse, Addiction , drug dependence, ill effects, prevention, its abuse in adolescents and its management; Strategies for food production and enhancement: Animal husbandry, management of farm animals, breeding strategies ( natural and artificial) and their types.

**Principles of Biotechnology:**

Genetic engineering tools and technique, the technique of separation and isolation of DNA, cloning vectors, electrophoresis, bioreactors, processing of its products. Tissue engineering; Cryopreservation; Fusion methods, detection and applications of monoclonal antibodies, DNA vaccines, Edible vaccines.; Application in agriculture: GMO for pest resistance, RNAi and dsRNA technology, Application in Medicine, genetically engineered products, gene therapy.

**Ecology:**

Organism and its environment, distribution of biomes, major physical factors and the physiological responses shown by organisms; Physical adaptation of plants and animals, rules governing adaptations; Population attributes and growth, logistic curves, Darwinian fitness; Population interactions and their theories; Ecosystem structure and functions, ecosystem productivity and standing crop, decomposition in nature, energy flow in GFC / DFC, ecological pyramids, succession of community; Nutrient cycle; ecosystem services; Biodiversity types and its patterns, importance of diversity, its loss and their causes, conservation strategies.

**MATHEMATICS**

**Sets :**Sets and their representations. Empty set. Finite & Infinite sets. Equal sets. Subsets. Subsets of the set of real numbers. Powerset. Universal set. Venn diagrams. Union and Intersection of sets. The difference of sets. The complement of a set.**Relations & Functions :**Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. Number of elements in the cartesian product of two finite sets. Cartesian product of the reals with itself (upto R x R x R). Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams, domain. co-domain and range of a relation. Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another. Pictorial representation a function, domain, co-domain & range of a function. Real-valued function of the real variable, domain and range of these functions.**Principle of Mathematical Induction:**Processes of the proof by induction. The principle of mathematical induction.**Permutations & Combinations:**Fundamental principle of counting. Factorial Permutations and combinations, derivation of formulae and their connections, simple applications.**Complex Numbers:**Complex numbers, Algebraic properties of complex numbers, Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers, Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system.**Linear Inequalities :**Linear inequalities. Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their representation on the number line. Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables. Solution of system of linear inequalities in two variables- graphically. Absolute value, Inequality of means.**Binomial Theorem :**Statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices. Pascal’s triangle, general and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.**Sequence and Series :**Sequence and Series. Arithmetic, Geometric and Harmonic progressions (G.P.), General terms and sum to*n*terms of A.P., G.P. and H.P. Arithmetic Mean (A.M.), Geometric Mean (G.M.), and Harmonic Mean (H.M.), Relation between A.M., G.M. and H.M. Insertion of Arithmetic, Geometric and Harmonic means between two given numbers.**Elementary Number Theory:**Peano’s Axioms, Principle of Induction; First Principle, Second Principle, Third Principle, Basis Representation Theorem, Greatest Integer Function Test of Divisibility, Euclid’s algorithm, The Unique Factorisation Theorem, Congruence.**Quadratic Equations :**Quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions. Relation between roots and coefficients, nature of roots, the formation of quadratic equations with given roots; Symmetric functions of roots, equations reducible to quadratic equations – application to practical problems.**Matrices and Determinants:**Determinants and matrices of order two and three, properties of determinants, Evaluation of determinants . Area of triangles using determinants, Addition and multiplication of matrices, adjoint and inverse of matrix.**Two-dimensional Geometry :**Cartesian system of rectangular co-ordinates in a plane, distance formula, section formula, area of a triangle, condition for the collinearity of three points, centroid and in-centre of a triangle, locus and its equation, translation of axes, slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes.**Trigonometric Functions :**Positive and negative angles. Measuring angles in radians & in degrees and conversion from one measure to another. Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle. Graphs of trigonometric functions. Expressing sin (*x*+*y*) and cos (*x*+*y*) in terms of sin*x*, sin*y*, cos*x*& cos*y*. Identities related to sin2x, cos2x, tan 2x, sin3x, cos3x and tan3x.**Inverse Trigonometric Functions:**Definition, range, domain, principal value branches. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.**Differential Calculus :**Polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, Inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, Continuity and differentiability; Derivative, Geometrical interpretation of the derivative, Derivative of sum**Applications of Derivatives:**Applications of derivatives: rate of change, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents & normals, approximation, maxima and minima**Integral Calculus :**Integral as an anti-derivative. Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions. Integration using trigonometric identities. Definite integrals as a limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Basic Properties of definite integrals.**Statistics :**Calculation of Mean, median and mode of grouped and ungrouped data. Measures of dispersion; mean deviation, variance and standard

KVS 2021 Salary Structure :**MATHEMATICS**

The salary structure of various teaching posts may vary according to their designation. As per their qualifications, the government is paying a very good salary to their staff. And other allowances as may be admissible under the rules in force from time to time in the KVS. According to the official Notification, the salary structure of the following posts is:

**KVS Admit Card 2021**

Every candidate who registers for KVS Exam 2021 within the stipulated time will be assigned an e-admit card/hall ticket that can be downloaded from the official website of KVS. The admit card for the written exam will be released first followed by the call letter for the interview (administered to only those candidates who qualify for the written exam).

**KVS 2021: Result**

KVS will release the KVS Recruitment results in two stages after completion of the Written Exam. The candidates were selected on the basis of the written exam as well as for the interview.

Candidates can check the result of the written exam from the direct link to the official KVS website.

**Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti**, the autonomous organization under MHRD, Department of School Education & Literacy, Government of India, conducts recruitment for TGT,

PGT, Lower Division Clerk, Legal Assistant posts, etc. The notification for NVS Recruitment 2021 has been relesed on 2nd July 2021. The recruitment is to be done for the

following posts:

- Assistant Commissioner
- Trained Graduate Teachers
- Post Graduate Teachers
- Miscellaneous Category of Teachers (PET-Female, PET-Male, Art, Music and Librarian)
- Female Staff Nurse
- Legal Assistant
- Lower Division Clerk
- Catering Assistant

**NVS Recruitment 2021 Latest Notification:**

The Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti has released the 2021 recruitment notifications on its official website

– *navodaya.gov.in. *The online application submission started on 2nd July 2021.

**NVS Recruitment 2021 Pattern & Syllabus :**

The NVS Exam for any post either it be for Assistant Commissioner post or for the posts of Miscellaneous Teachers and

TGTs consists of objective type. Each question will carry one mark. The NVS exam pattern 2021 is given below :

** (a)Exam Pattern for PGTs –**

**(b) Syllabus for PGTs –**

Subject | Detailed PDF |

Chemistry | Download Here |

Physics | Download Here |

Biology | Download Here |

Mathematics | Download Here |

__Syllabus for written examination for PGT (Biology)__

** **Morphology, Anatomy and histology of angiosperms: Root , stem , leaf, flower , inflorescence, fruits and seeds, Tissues : Meristamatic and permanent ( epidermal, ground, vascular). Cambial activity, secondary growth, type of wood. Animal tissues ; Morphology, Anatomy and histology of annelids , insects , amphibians.

**Structural and functional organization of cell**

** **Cell cycle , detailed study of Cell division (mitosis , meiosis) ; Cell death ; Structure and function( metabolism) of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids ; Enzymology : Classification and nomenclature of enzymes ; Structure ; Mechanism of action, single substrate and bisubstrate enzyme ; Activators and inhibitors of enzymes ; Factors affecting the activity of enzymes.

** **Water relations: Properties of water, water in tissues and cells, Transport of water and solutes( food, nutrients, gases) : Transport across cell membrane ; soil-plant-atmosphere continuum ; Minerals required by plant,their absorbable form, functions, deficiency symptoms, essentiality of mineral, N_{2} metabolism, biological fixation ; Cellular Metabolism: Gluconeogenesis, Glycogenesis and glycogenolysis, hormonal regulation ; Oxidation of food, respiratory efficiency of various food components ; transport and detoxification of ammonia , Lipid Metabolism ; Photosynthesis: Basic principles of light absorption, excitation energy transfer, electron transports, cycles ( C_{2} , C_{3}, C_{4}, CAM ), plant productivity, measurement of photosynthetic parameters ; Physiological responses to abiotic stresses ; Sensory photobiology; Plant growth regulators : Growth ,differentiation / de-differentiation and re-differentiation, development ; Physiological affects and mechanism of action of plant growth hormones, Flowering : Photoperiodism and its significance, endogenous clock and its regulation, floral induction and development, vernalisation ; Plant movements.

** **Morphology, Anatomy, Histology, Physiology, Control and Disorders of Digestion, Respiration, Body fluids and Circulation**, **Excretion, Skeleton system & muscle, Nervous; Physiology of high altitude.

** **Plants**: **Structural details of angiospermic flower, development of gametophytes, pollination and its types, agencies of pollination, pollen- pistil interaction, fertilization, Artificial hybridization (emasculation and bagging) development of seed and fruit ; Apomixis and Polyembryony ; Self incompatibility: Structural and biochemical aspects; methods to overcome incompatibility; Experimental Embryology; Human Reproduction**: **Morphology, Anatomy, Histology and Physiology of reproduction ; Neuro-endocrine control **; **Sexual behavior in infancy, pre-adolescence, adolescence and of adult ; Implantation, Pregnancy and Parturition ; Mammary gland and Lactation ; Infantile mammary gland, pubertal changes in mammary gland; Structure of adult mammary gland, galactopoiesis, milk let down ; Menopause. Senescence – Impact of age on reproduction.Foetal and Embryonic Gonads and Genital ducts ;Hormonal basis of sex differentiation ; Disorders of sexual differentiation development ;Reproductive Health**: **Problems and strategies, Population explosion –causes and effects, birth control measures- natural methods, physical / barrier, bio-chemical, hormonal, immunological, surgical methods, IUD’s , amniocentesis, female feticide, MMR, IMR, MTP, STD’s, infertility Disorders of female and female reproductive systems – Sexual dysfunction; Infertility – Causes and curative measures ; Reproductive toxicology of environmental and industrial chemicals, drug and alcohol ;Medically assisted human reproductive technologies, GIFT, IUT, ZIFT, TET ; Embryo culture.

** **Principles of Inheritance and Variation: Mendelian genetics, Inheritance of one gene, two genes, post mendelian inheritance; Recombination frequency, chromosomal theory of inheritance ; Drosophila genetics, linkage and recombinations ; Mutation :General properties of mutations ; Adaptation versus mutation ; molecular basis of gene mutation : DNA repair mechanisms ; Pedigree analysis ; Human karyotype-banding ; genetic and environmental basis of sex determination, Y- and X-linked genes; Numerical and Structural abnormalities of human chromosomes and related syndromes ; Human metabolic disorders.;Molecular Basis of Inheritance**: **Chemical nature of DNA and RNA, Biological functions of nucleic acids ; Search for genetic material, RNA world ; Replication ; Transcription and processing of RNA, Genetic code; Translation, post-translational modifications ; Ribosomes and Proteins ; Regulation of Gene expression ; DNA Fingerprinting ; Gene mapping ; Chromosome banding; Restriction enzyme, nucleotide sequence comparisons and homologies ; Molecular clocks ; Genetics in modern agriculture ,animal breeding, medicine, human behaviour ; Misuse of genetics ; Genetic Counseling ; Gene therapy ; HGP ; Gene Activity in prokaryotes and eukaryotes ; Signals for gene control – Hormones and growth factors ; Totipotency & Pleuripotency ; Stem cell and Gene therapy ; Bacterial transformation, transduction and conjugation, Bacterial chromosome; Bacteriophages : Types, structure and morphology ;Evolutionary biology: Cosmic evolution – Physical basis of life ; Theories of origin of life ; Origin of life through biochemical evolution ; Experimental evidences for origin of life ; The origin of natural selection ; Extraterrestrial life ; Evolution of the eukaryotic cell : Evolution of the Metazoa ; Evolution of chordata and the evolution of the major vertebrate classes; Origin and evolution of man : Population Genetics; Genetic variations ; Polymorphism ; Gene frequency; Hardy Weinberg equilibrium ; Genetic drift, founder effect ; adaptive radiations, ecological significance of molecular variations.

**Biology in Human welfare**

** **Health and disease ; types of diseases, common diseases in humans ; Immunology – Innate and Acquired immunity ; Passive and active immunization ; Organization and structure of lymphoid organ ; Cells of the immune system and their differentiation ; Lymphocyte traffic ; Nature of immune response ; Structure and Functions of antibodies : Antigen-Antibody interactions ; Humoral immune response ; Cell mediated immunity ; Immunological memory **; **Auto-immunity **; **Allergies; HLA system in human :MHC haplotypes ; Transplantation types and problems ; Immunodeficiency disorders ;etiology of HIV ; types, genetics and biochemistry of cancer ; Drugs and alcohol abuse, Addiction , drug dependence, ill effects, prevention, its abuse in adolescents and its management;Strategies for food production and enhancement: Animal husbandry, management of farm animals, breeding strategies ( natural and artificial) and their types, economic importance of each ; Plant breeding, method of release of new variety, HYV of common cereals and pulses, bio-fortification, SCP ; Tissue culturing, somatic hybridization;Microbes in Human Welfare**: **Technology associated and use of Microbes in household, industries, medicine, bio-active molecules, sewage treatment and STP, Ganga and Yamuna action plan, biogas production, biocontrol agents, biofertilizers.

** **Genetic engineering tools and technique, technique of separation and isolation of DNA, cloning vectors ,electrophoresis, bio reactors, processing of its products. Tissue engineering ; Cryopreservation ; Fusion methods, detection and applications of monoclonal antibodies, DNA vaccines, Edible vaccines.;Application in agriculture : GMO for pest resistance, RNAi and dsRNA technology,Application in Medicine, genetically engineered products, gene therapy. Molecular diagnosis : serum and urine analysis, PCR, ELISA ; Transgenic animals : their physiology, biological products and their use for testing the safety of vaccine and chemicals ; Bioethics issues ; biopyracy.

** **Organism and its environment, distribution of biomes, major physical factors and the physiological responses shown by organisms ; Physical adaptation of plants and animals, rules governing adaptations ; Population attributes and growth, logistic curves, Darwinian fitness ; Population interactions and their theories ; Ecosystem structure and functions, ecosystem productivity and standing crop, decomposition in nature, energy flow in GFC / DFC, ecological pyramids, succession of community ; Nutrient cycle ; ecosystem services ; Biodiversity types and its patterns, importance of diversity, its loss and their causes, conservation strategies ; Environmental issues : Types of pollution, their indicators, causes, effects, prevention and treatment ; Deforestation, recommended forestation, reforestation, case studies of people’s participation in conservation.

__Syllabus for written examination for PGT(Mathematics)__

Sets and their representations. Empty set. Finite & Infinite sets. Equal sets. Subsets. Subsets of the set of real numbers. Power set. Universal set. Venn diagrams. Union and Intersection of sets. Difference of sets. Complement of a set.

Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. Number of elements in the cartesian product of two finite sets. Cartesian product of the reals with itself (upto R x R x R). Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams, domain. co-domain and range of a relation. Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another. Pictorial representation a function, domain, co-domain & range of a function. Real valued function of the real variable, domain and range of these functions, constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum and greatest integer functions with their graphs. Sum, difference, product and quotients of functions. Sets and their Representations. Union, intersection and complements of sets, and their algebraic properties, Relations, equivalence relations, mappings, one-one, into and onto mappings, composition of mappings.

Processes of the proof by induction. The principle of mathematical induction.

**Permutations & Combinations:**

Fundamental principle of counting. Factorial *n. *Permutations and combinations, derivation of formulae and their connections, simple applications.

Complex numbers, Algebraic properties of complex numbers, Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers, Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system. Modulus and Argument of a complex number, square root of a complex number. Cube roots of unity, triangle inequality.

Linear inequalities. Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their representation on the number line. Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables. Solution of system of linear inequalities in two variables- graphically. Absolute value, Inequality of means, Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, Tchebychef’s Inequality.

Statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices. Pascal’s triangle, general and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications. Binomial Theorem for any index. Properties of Binomial Co-efficients. Simple applications for approximations.

Sequence and Series. Arithmetic, Geometric and Harmonic progressions (G.P.), General terms and sum to *n *terms of A.P., G.P. and H.P. Arithmetic Mean (A.M.), Geometric Mean (G.M.), and Harmonic Mean (H.M.), Relation between A.M., G.M. and H.M. Insertion of Arithmetic, Geometric and Harmonic means between two given numbers. Special series, Sum to *n *terms of the special series. . Arithmetico-Geometric Series, Exponential and Logarithmic series.

Peano’s Axioms, Principle of Induction; First Principle, Second Principle, Third Principle, Basis Representation Theorem, Greatest Integer Function Test of Divisibility, Euclid’s algorithm, The Unique Factorisation Theorem, Congruence, Sum of divisors of a number . Euler’s totient function, Theorems of Fermat and Wilson.

Quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions. Relation between roots and co-efficients, nature of roots, formation of quadratic equations with given roots; Symmetric functions of roots, equations reducible to quadratic equations – application to practical problems.

Polynomial functions, Remainder & Factor Theorems and their converse, Relation between roots and coefficients, Symmetric functions of the roots of an equation. Common roots.

Determinants and matrices of order two and three, properties of determinants, Evaluation of determinants. Area of triangles using determinants, Addition and multiplication of matrices, adjoint and inverse of matrix. Test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations using determinants and matrices.

Cartesian system of rectangular co-ordinates in a plane, distance formula, section formula, area of a triangle, condition for the collinearity of three points, centroid and in-centre of a triangle, locus and its equation, translation of axes, slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes.Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two lines, conditions for concurrence of three lines, distance of a point from a line, Equations of internal and external bisectors of angles between two lines, coordinates of centroid, orthocentre and circumcentre of a triangle, equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines, homogeneous equation of second degree in x and y, angle between pair of lines through the origin, combined equation of the bisectors of the angles between a pair of lines, condition for the general second degree equation to represent a pair of lines, point of intersection and angle between two lines. Standard form of equation of a circle, general form of the equation of a circle, its radius and centre, equation of a circle in the parametric form, equation of a circle when the end points of a diameter are given, points of intersection of a line and a circle with the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to the circle, length of the tangent, equation of the tangent, equation of a family of circles through the intersection of two circles, condition for two intersecting circles to be orthogonal. Sections of cones, equations of conic sections (parabola, ellipse and hyperbola) in standard forms, condition for y = mx + c to be a tangent and point(s) of tangency.

Definition, range, domain, principal value branches. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.

Polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, Inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, Continuity and differentiability; Derivative, Geometrical interpretation of the derivative, Derivative of sum, difference, product and quotient of functions. Derivatives of polynomial and trigonometric functions, Derivative of composite functions; chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit function. Exponential and logarithmic functions and their derivatives. Logarithmic differentiation. Derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorems and their geometric interpretations.

Applications of derivatives: rate of change, increasing / decreasing functions, tangents & normals, approximation, maxima and minima.

Integral as an anti-derivative. Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions. Integration using trigonometric identities. Definite integrals as a limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Basic Properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals; Applications of definite integrals in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, areas of circles / Parabolas / ellipses, area between the two curves.

Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables, homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation.

Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines / ratios of vectors. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Scalar (dot) product of vectors, projection of a vector on a line. Vector (cross) product of vectors.

Coordinates of a point in space, distance between two points; Section formula, Direction cosines / ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian and vector equationof a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes. (iii) a line and a plane. Distance of a point from a plane. Scalar and vector triple product. Application of vectors to plane geometry. Equation of a sphere, its centre and radius. Diameter form of the equation of a sphere.

Calculation of Mean, median and mode of grouped and ungrouped data. Measures of dispersion; mean deviation, variance and standard deviation of ungrouped / grouped data. Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances.

Random experiments: outcomes, sample spaces. Events: occurrence of events, exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events, Probability of an event, probability of ‘not’, ‘and’ & ‘or’ events., Multiplication theorem on probability. Conditional probability, independent events,,Baye’s theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, Binomial and Poisson distributions and their properties.

Examples of vector spaces, vector spaces and subspace, independence in vector spaces, existence of a Basis, the row and column spaces of a matrix, sum and intersection of subspaces. Linear Transformations and Matrices, Kernel, Image, and Isomorphism, change of bases, Similarity, Rank and Nullity. Inner Product spaces, orthonormal sets and the Gram- Schmidt Process, the Method of Least Squares. Basic theory of Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues, algebraic and geometric multiplicity of eigen value, diagonalization of matrices, application to system of linear differential equations. Generalized Inverses of matrices, Moore-Penrose generalized inverse.Real quadratic forms, reduction and classification of quadratic forms, index and signature, triangular reduction of a pair of forms, singular value decomposition, extrema of quadratic forms. Jordan canonical form, vector and matrix decomposition.

Monotone functions and functions of bounded variation. Real valued functions, continuous functions, Absolute continuity of functions, standard properties. Uniform continuity, sequence of functions, uniform convergence, power series and radius of convergence. Riemann-Stieltjes integration, standard properties, multiple integrals and their evaluation by repeated integration, change of variable in multiple integration. Uniform convergence in improper integrals, differentiation under the sign of integral – Leibnitz rule.Dirichlet integral, Liouville’s extension. Introduction to n-dimensional Euclidean space, open and closed intervals (rectangles), compact sets, Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem, Heine-Borel theorem. Maxima-minima of functions of several variables, constrained maxima-minima of functions. Analytic function, Cauchy-Riemann equations, singularities, Statement of Cauchy theorem and of Cauchy integral formula with applications, Residue and contour integration. Fourier and Laplace transforms, Mellin’s inversion theorem.

** Unit I: Physical World and Measurement**

Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures. dimensional analysis and its applications.

**Unit II: Kinematics**

Frame of reference. Motion in a one ,two and three dimension: Position-time graph, speed and velocity.Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity.Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion .Vectors :Position and displacement vectors .addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.scalar product of vectors,Vector product of vectors.Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane – rectangular components. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion.

**Unit III: Laws of Motion**

Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications. Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Types of friction, laws of friction, .Dynamics of uniform circular motion .

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conversation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples.Dynamics of rigid bodies, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration.Values of moments of inertia for geometrical objects. Parallel and perpendicular axis theorems and their applications.

Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law,modulus of elasticity . Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applicationsViscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamlineand turbulent flow. Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications. Surface energy and surface tension, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise. Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat – calorimetry; change of state – latent heat. Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Newton’s law of cooling.

number.

Periodic motion – period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions.Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring– restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M.-kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum–derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance.Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves,standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.

Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law and its application,force between two point charges,forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Gauss’s theorem and its applications Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor. Van de Graaff generator.

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.Kirchhoff’s laws and its applications.. Potentiometer – principle and its applications Thermal and chemical effect of current.

**Unit XII: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism**

Biot – Savart law and its application Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Lorentz’s force. Cyclotron,synchrotron. Interaction of a current-carrying conductor with magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field and its application; Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole momentof a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet)

along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.

**Unit XIII: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents **Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance.

Need for displacement current.

Alternating currents and its measurement reactance and impedance; LC oscillations, LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits,.

generator , motors and transformer.

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.

Scattering of light and its application.

Optical instruments: Human eye-eye defects and its correction. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes and their magnifying powers.

Wave optics: wave front and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width,

coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. Compton effect, deffraction of X- rays ,Bragg’s law ,Hall effect.

Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment. Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Composition and size of nucleus, packing fraction and magnetic moment, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity-alpha,

beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law.

Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; liquid drop model of nucleus, nuclear fission and fusion.,critical mass ,chain reaction

and fission reaction, ionization chamber,Geiger counter and scinitillation counter,linear accelerator.

Semiconductors; semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates and its combination. Transistor as a switch.

**Some Basic concepts of Chemistry:**Scope of chemistry , Historical approach to nature of matter – states of matter, properties of matter and its measurement, S.I. system of units, Uncertainty in measurements, dimensional analysis, Laws of chemical combination, atomic and molecular masses, Mole concept and molar masses, percentage composition, empirical and molecular masses, equivalent weight, concept of limiting reagent

** 2. States of Matter**: Gases, liquids and solids, three states of matter, types of intermolecular forces. The laws governing ideal gas behaviour, Dalton’s law of partial pressure, Kinetic molecular theory of ideal gases, Maxwell Boltzmann distribution law on molecular motion, real gases – deviation from ideal behaviour, vander Waals equation. Liquid and their properties. Solids: Classification of solids, fundamental types of lattices, two and three dimensional lattice types, Simple crystal structures, Transformation of crystal structure on varying temperature, Bragg’s law, density in solids, energy band, band gaps, semiconductors, magnetic and dielectric properties, stoichiometric and non- stoichiometric defects in solids.

** 3 Structure of Atom: **Structure of Atom (Classical Theory), Dalton’s atomic theory, Bohr’s model of atom, Structure of atom (modern theory), de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principal, Classical wave equation, Schrödinger’s wave equation, Probability distribution curve, Quantum numbers, Pauli’s exclusion principle, Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity.

** 4 Equilibrium:** Reversible reactions, criteria of equilibrium, Law of mass action, equilibrium constant, Kc and Kp , Le Chatelier principle, Ionic equilibrium, Ostwald’s dilution Law, solution of acids, bases, ionic equilibria in solution, Common ion effect – its application to qualitative analysis, acids and bases, Bronsted- Lowry theory of acids and bases, Lewis concept of acid and bases, relative strengths of acids and bases, their quantitative estimation, buffer solution and its use, determination of pH, theories of indicators, conductometric titration, Solubility product, hydrolysis.

**Surface Chemistry**: Adsorption, absorption, sorption, Physical adsorption, Chemisorption adsorption, isotherms ( Freundlich, Langmuir), application of adsorption, types of Catalysis theories of catalysis, classification of colloids, preparation of Colloidal Solution (lyophobic and lyophilic), Special characteristics of colloidal solutions , electrophoresis, Precipitation of colloids – Hardy Schulze law, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids, Emulsion and Gels.

** 6 Chemical Kinetics:** Theories of reaction rates, rate of reaction , molecularity and order of reaction, Fast reactions- Luminescence and energy transfer process, reaction mechanisms(Simple and complex reactions).

** 7 Redox Reaction and Electrochemistry**: Oxidation and reduction, redox reaction and its application, oxidation number, Strong and weak electrolytes, activity coefficient, conductance and conductivity, Kohlrausch law, resistance and resistivity molar conductivity, equivalent conductivity, Qualitative and quantitative aspect of electrolysis, electrochemical cell and electrolytic cell, Electrode and electrode potential and standard electrode potential, Electrochemical series and its applications, Nernst equation and its application, Equilibrium constant and EMF of the cell.

**8 Solutions**:Solution and its types, expression of concentration of solution, solubility and factors affecting the solubility of a solid in a liquid (temperature and pressure), Vapour pressure of a liquid, Raoult’s law for both volatile and non volatile solute,Ideal and non ideal solution, Colligative properties, abnormal molecular masses and Van’t Hoff factor.

**Chemical bonding and Molecular Structure:**Valence electrons and Lewis structures, Ionic bond, Covalent bond, Bond parameters ,Co-ordinate bond, polarity and dipole moment, Quantitative idea of – valence bond theory, molecular orbital theory (LCAO), Concept of hybridization involving s, p, d orbitals, Hydrogen bond, Resonance.**Thermodynamics**:Macroscopic properties of the system, modes of transfer of energy between system and surrounding, Phase transition, phase rule and phase diagram, First Law, second law and third law, of thermodynamics. Internal energy and enthalpy of the reaction, their measurement and application, spontaneity of process, Entropy and spontaneity, Helmholtz and Gibb’s free energy, Thermodynamics of electrochemical cells.**Classification of elements and periodicity in properties**: Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, periodic laws, name of the elements with Z>100 according to IUPAC system, classification of elements into s, p, d, f –block elements and their characteristics, Periodic trends in the properties of elements – Ionization enthalpy, Electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, atomic radii, ionic radii, periodicity of valency or oxidation state.**Hydrogen:**Position of Hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, Preparation of hydrogen, on small and commercial scale, hydrides, water, hard and soft water, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen economy, hydrogen as a fuel**General principles and processes of isolation of elements and s – block elements**: Principles and methods of extraction, oxidation and reduction as applied to the extraction procedures of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe. s – block elements, general introduction – Electronic configuration, occurrence, Anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, Trends in variation of the properties, reaction of alkali and alkaline earth metals. Preparation and properties and uses of some important compounds: – sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate, industrial uses of lime and lime stone, biological importance of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium.**p – Block Elements:**Electronic configuration, variation in physical and chemical properties of groups 13 to 18, physical and chemical properties of borax, boric acid, boron hydride, silicones, preparation and uses, preparation, properties and uses of nitrogen, ammonia, nitric acid and oxides of nitrogen, phosphorus – allotropic forms, preparation and properties of phosphine, phosphorus pentachloride and phosphorus trichloride, preparation, properties and uses of oxygen and ozone, hydrides and halides of 16 group elements, their structure and nature, allotropic forms of sulphur- their preparation, preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide, industrial preparation of oxo-acids of sulphur, preparation and properties of halogen and halogen acids, inter halogen compounds, pseudohalide ions. Oxo-acids of halogens, their structure and nature, preparation, properties and uses of xenon fluorides, oxides of xenon and xenon oxo fluorides.**The d – and f- Block Elements:**General introduction, electronic configuration and general trend in the properties of first row transition metals like metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, coloured ion formation, catalytic properties, magnetic properties, oxides, halides and sulphides of first row transition metals, complex compound formation etc. Preparation, properties and structures of KMnO4 and K2Cr2 O7, lanthanoids and actinoids.**Co-ordination Compounds and organometallics:**Meaning of co-ordination compounds, Werner’s theory, ligands – their types, IUPAC nomenclature of co- ordination compounds, isomerism, bonding in co-ordination compounds, colour, magnetic properties and, stabilities of co-ordination compounds. Chemical and biological importance of coordination compounds, metal carbonyls: preparation, properties and bonding, organometallic compounds and their classification.**Organic Chemistry**: Some Basic Principles and Techniques: General Classification of organic compounds, Shapes of organic compounds-Hybridisation(sp, sp2 ,sp3 ), Structural representation of organic molecules, Functional groups, Homologous, series. Common or trivial names, nomenclature of aliphatic, aromatic and substituted aromatic compounds. Isomerism : Structural and Stereo isomerism Fundamental Concepts in Reaction Mechanism: Cleavage of covalent bond, Types of attacking species, electron movement in organic reactions, electronic displacement in a covalent bond and types of organic reactions. Methods of purification of organic compounds: Qualitative analysis, Quantitative analysis., estimation of the elements and determination of empirical and molecular formula.**Hydrocarbons:**Classification of hydrocarbons. Alkanes: Conformations (Newmann and Sawhorse formulae), Physical properties, Chemical reactions Cycloalkanes: Preparation, physical and chemical properties, stability of cycloalkanes(Bayer strain theory), chair and boat forms of cyclohexane. Alkenes:, structure of double bond, geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions. Alkadienes: Classification of dienes, Preparation of conjugated dienes, Chemical properties(1,2 and 1,4- addition to conjugated dienes). Alkynes:, structure of triple bond, physical properties, methods of preparation Chemical properties, Acidic nature of alkynes Aromatic Hydrocarbons:, Structure of benzene, resonance, aromaticity (Huckel’s rule) Chemical properties, mechanism of electrophilic substitution direct influence of substituents in monosubustituted benzene.**Environmental Chemistry**: Environmental pollution, Atmospheric pollution, Tropospheric pollution(Air pollution), Major air pollutants, Control of air pollution, Smog(Chemical and Photochemical smog), Stratospheric pollution: Ozone layer and its depletion, Acid rain, Green House Effect and Global warming, Water pollution, Soil pollution and Industrial waste.**Haloalkanes and Haloarenes:**Classification, methods of preparation of haloalkanes and haloarenes, their physical properties, tests to distinguish between alkyl and aryl halides, mechanism of SN1 and SN2 reactions, elimination reactions (Saytzeff Rule, E1 & E2 mechanism).Poly halogen compounds: Preparation and properties.**Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers**: Classification, preparation, properties and uses, tests to distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. Distinctions between alcohols and phenols. Preparation of ethers , physical and chemical properties.**Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids:**Structure of carbonyl group, preparation of aldehydes and ketones, physical , Chemical properties and uses, tests to distinguish between aldehydes and ketones .Preparations of carboxylic acids preparation properties and uses.**Amines**(Organic compounds containing nitrogen ): Classification, Structure of amino group, preparation, Physical, Chemical properties, tests to distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary amines**Polymers:**Polymerization, Classification of polymers based on : origin, structure, molecular forces, mode of polymerization. Addition polymerization Condensation polymerization(Step-growth polymerization) Preparation of condensation polymers Synthetic and natural rubber and vulcanization, Determination of molecular mass of polymers:. Poly dispersity index(PDI). Bio-degradable polymers like PHBV. 25. Biomolecules(Biochemistry):Carbohydrates: Classification of carbohydrates , Structural determination of glucose and fructose on the basis of their chemical properties, forms ofb and aOpen chain (Fischer) structure, cyclic structure(Haworth form), glucose, Mutarotation, anomers and epimers, Chemical reactions of glucose, Reducing and non-reducing sugars, Configuration of glucose and fructose. Disaccharides Sucrose, Haworth representation of disaccharides, Polysaccharides, Starch, Cellulose, and amylopectin structures, Functions of Carbohydrates in living organisms. Carbohydrate metabolism, glycolysis, electron-transport chain, Proteins: Amino acids, Zwitter ion, Iso-electric point, peptides and peptide bond, Fibrous proteins, Globular proteins and their functions, Primary, Secondary(Helix and pleated sheet structures) and tertiary structure of proteins, denaturation and renaturation, Enzymes, specificity and mechanism of enzyme activity , coenzymes, applications of enzymes. Nucleic acids : Nucleosides, Nucleotides, Structure of ATP, Photosynthesis(Light and dark reactions) Primary and Secondary structure of DNA(Double Helix structure) , biological functions of nucleic acids, Replication, Protein synthesis (Transcription, Translation, mutation), genetic code, genetic errors, Vitamins, classification, diseases caused by the deficiency of vitamins, Hormones (steroid hormones and non-steroid hormones) and their functions. 26. Chemistry in Everyday life: Drugs and medicines – designing a drug, drug metabolism, classification of drugs, enzymes as drug targets, action of drug through drug receptor interaction, types of drugs: Antipyretics, Analgesics, antiseptics, disinfectants, tranquilizers, antimicrobials, antibiotics(Narrow spectrum and broad spectrum antibiotics), antifertility drugs, antihistmmines, antacids. Chemicals in food, Food preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, Soaps and detergents, Preparation soaps(Saponification) and detergents, cleansing action of soaps, advantages of detergents over soaps, Deodorants, Edible colours, antioxidants.

** **

**Punjab School Lecturer Cadre Coaching : **

Official Website : https://educationrecruitmentboard.com/Lecturer191/

**Bansal academy is starting online Live class & Offlinecoaching for **

**Physics****Chemistry****Botany****Zoology****Biotechnology****Microbiology,****Batches Starting : 08,JUNE 2021.****Online Recorded Lectures**+**Test Series + Doubt Sessions + Pdf Notes,Assignment,Test Series**+**Live Doubt Class + WhatsApp Doubt****fee 8000/- .****Duration : 2.5 to 3 months****Time Duration : Each day Minimum 5 hours of timing will be available for conducting classes.****Study Material : Printed and Hand written notes will be available to the students.****Doubt Class : Extra time will be given to the students excluding**

regular timing for Doubt Removal Session (DRS).**Test Series : Available to Students Weekly, Monthly, Unit**

Wise, Mock Test Series (MTS).**Assignment : It will be provided according to Syllabus Covered in a**

week .**Package includes : Online / Offline Live Lectures +Test**

Series + Doubt Sessions + Personal Counselling**SPECIAL BONUS EXTRA HOURS : Course duration is actually three**

months with 5 hours of daily classes but for average students special

ho**urs will be dedicated.****Online Recorded Lectures**+**Test Series**+

+ Doubt Sessions + Pdf Notes,Assignment,Test Series**Live Doubt**

Class + WhatsApp Doubt**– fee – 8000/- .**

**Eligibility Criteria and Selection Procedure :**

**Age Limit**

**Lecturers Backlog & Lecturers** : The age of the candidate should not be less than 18 years and not more

than 37 years as on 01.01.2019.

**Educational Qualification : **The candidate should have passed M.Sc./ M.Com/ PG in Related Subject or any other equivalent qualification, but equivalency certificate should have been given by the concerned University or Institution at least with 55% marks and should have passed B.Ed.

with teaching subject Science from a recognized University Institution as per

guidelines of University Grants Commission.

A relaxation of 5% may be provided from 55% to 50% of the marks in determining good academic record for Scheduled castes/Scheduled Tribes and Physically Handicapped category candidates.

The applicant must have studied Punjabi till the Higher secondary exam or High school exam.

__Pay Scale :__

Application Fee :

- General and other category candidates – Rs.1000/ –
- Reserve Category (SC / ST) – 500/-
- Ex-serviceman – Nil

__Mode Of Payment :__

Fee can be paid using online mode via Net Banking, Credit or Debit cards.

__How to Apply :__

There are many candidates who wants to apply for these Posts. So, we are providing

the Detailed Steps to Apply Online for these Posts. Candidates can apply by following these Simple Steps :

__Steps to Apply Online for Punjab Lecturer Recruitment :__

- Visit the Official Website of Punjab Education Recruitment Board.
- Click on Recruitment Tab Option.
- Click on On – going Vacancies for the Given Posts.
- Click on Online Application.
- Click on New User & Register Yourself.
- Fill all the Required Details.
- Click on Final Submission.
- Take a Print out of Application to carry in the examination hall

**Pattern of written exam : **

**The exam consists of 150 questions related to the concerned subject. Each question carries 1 marks . **

**Syllabus for written test :**

The syllabus of the exam is as per Punjab recruitment board.

The syllabus of Punjab School Lecturer cadre exam consist of units upto MSc level.

To check out the syllabus of the concerned exam , click on the link given below :

Biology : https://educationrecruitmentboard.com/Lecturer191/Docs/BiologySyllabus26_04_2021.pdf

Chemistry: https://educationrecruitmentboard.com/Lecturer191/Docs/ChemistrySyllabus26_04_2021.pdf

Physics : https://educationrecruitmentboard.com/Lecturer191/Docs/PhysicsSyllabus26_04_2021.pdf

Maths : https://educationrecruitmentboard.com/Lecturer191/Docs/MathSyllabus26_04_2021.pdf

Kindly fill the registration form on website and pay registration fee through payment

given in menu above or visit in person at our campus office **Bansal academySCF 19, First floor, Back Entry, Sector 16 – D, Chandigarh** with Aadhaar

card as Id proof and directly submit fee or

BRANCH by cash deposit / net banking in favor of Bansal academy A/C No.

65135815407, IFSC Code SBIN0000742 Punjab University Branch at sector 14,

Chandigarh.

**Contact: 0172-2710169, 9216090169**

Master Cadre Coaching

What you

will Learn about syllabus & Basic Eligibility :

Syllabus

Science : Physics , Chemistry, Maths, Botany, Zoology.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1994e_jt6cwoZ-Untx4CD46RJS_Wm9ig1/view?usp=drivesdk

Syllabus

Physics :

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1DsIDHXqZ1Gymu8vA1v32Tr2LrvR4IwN-/view?usp=drivesdk

Name of

Organisation :Punjab State Education Board

Name of

Vacancy: Master/Mistress cadre

No. of

Vacancies :3264 (tentative)

Pay

Scale: 10300/- per month SSC Recruitment 2020,

Application

Form, Exam Dates Punjab Master Cadre Recruitment 2021

Important

Dates :

Start

date of online application submission 2nd week of March 2021.

Last date

of online application submission: 4th week of March 2021

PSEB 2021

Vacancy Details;

Subjects

No. of Posts

Maths

40,Science 28, Hindi 10, English 08, Social Science 02, Punjabi 02,

PSEB

Recruitment 2021 Application Form Applicants can apply online through

www.educationrecruitmentboard.com

Click on

new registration and apply online Fill in all the details and click on

submit button.

Application

Fee General and others Rs. 1000/- SC/ST Rs. 500/- Ex serviceman Nil

Hindi

Must have passed graduation at least 55% from a recognized university or

institution and must have studied Hindi as an elective subject for three years

of graduation. Must have passed B.Ed from a recognized University or

institution with Hindi as one of the teaching subject as per guidelines

of the University Grant Commission.

English

Must have passed graduation at least 55% from a recognized university or

institution and must have studied English as an elective subject for three

years of graduation. Must have passed B.Ed from a recognized University or

institution with English as one of the teaching subject as per guidelines of

the University Grant Commission.

Mathematics

Must have passed graduation at least 55% from a recognized university or institution

and must have studied Mathematics as an elective subject for three years of

graduation. Must have passed B.Ed from a recognized University or institution

with Mathematics as one of the teaching subject as per guidelines of the

University Grant Commission.

Punjabi

Must have passed graduation at least 55% from a recognized university or

institution and must have studied Punjabi as an elective subject for three

years of graduation. Must have passed B.Ed from a recognized University or

institution with Punjabi as one of the teaching subject as per guidelines of

the University Grant Commission.

Science

(Non-Medical) Must have passed B.Sc at least 55% from a recognized university

or institution with any of the two subject i.e. Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics

or must have passed B.Sc in Physics and Mathematics or any other equivalent

qualification, but certificate of equivalency must be given by the concerned

University as per guidelines of the University Grant Commission. Must have

passed B.Ed from a recognized university or institution with Science as

one of the teaching subject as per guidelines of the University Grant

commission.

Science

(Medical) Must have passed B.Sc at least 55% from a recognized university or

institution with any of the two subject i.e. Biology, Physics and Chemistry or

B.Sc (Honours) in either of these subjects or B.Sc (Physical Science) of B.Sc (

life science) or B.Sc (Bio technology) or B.Sc (Honours) or B.Sc (Bio Physics)

or. B.Sc (Bio chemistry or B.Sc (Microbial, Food Technology, Chemistry) or B.Sc

(Industrial Chemistry) or B.Sc (Food Science & Quality control) or B.Sc

(Microbial Food Technology or any other equivalent qualification but

certificate of equivalency must be given by the concerned university as per

guidelines of the University Grant commission. Must have passed B.Ed from

a recognized university or institution with Science as one of the teaching

subject as per guidelines of the University Grant commission.

Social

Studies Must have passed graduation at least 55% from a recognized university

or institution and must have studied any of the two subjects i.e. History,

Political Science, Public Administration, Psychology, Sociology, Economics

Geography, Philosophy and Environmental Studies at least for three years of

Graduation as peer guidelines of the University Grant Commission. Must have

passed B.Ed from a recognized University or institution with Social Science as

one of the teaching subject as per guidelines of the University Grant

Commission.

Age Limit

Minimum Age 18 years Maximum Age 47 years Selection Process Selection will be

on the basis of state level written test.

**SYLLABUS**

:

**The syllabus of college cadre exam is as per NETand level of difficulty will be almost similar .**

**Bansal academy is starting online Live class & Offline College**

Cadre coaching for**Physics****Chemistry****Botany****Zoology****Maths****Batches Starting : April 14th 2021.****Online fee : 5000/- Per Subject. Discount applicable for two and**

three subjects.**Duration : Approximately As Per Exam Date.****Class Timings : 600 am – 830 am / 530 pm – 800 pm.****Study Material : Hand Written and Printed Notes in PDF Form**

or Hard Copy.**Doubt Class : Extra time will be given to the students excluding**

regular timing for Doubt Removal Session (DRS).**Test Series : Weekly, Monthly, Unit Wise, PYP, Mock Test Series**

(MTS).**Assignment : It will be provided according to Syllabus Covered.****Package includes : Online Live Lectures +Test Series +**

Doubt Sessions + Personal Counselling + PDF Notes

Kindly fill the registration form on website and

pay registration fee through payment given in menu above or visit n person at

our campus office Bansal academy SCF 19, First floor,

Back Entry, Sector 16 – D, Chandigarh with Aadhaar card as Id proof and

directly submit fee. OR you can deposit fee at any SBI BRANCH by cash deposit /

net banking in favor of Bansal academy A/C No.

65135815407, IFSC Code SBIN0000742 Punjab University Branch at sector 14,

Chandigarh.

Contact: 0172-2710169,

9216090169

- Study material Master Cadre Coaching:Its unique, crisp,

comprehensive, in depth according to previous year papers (PYP) with to

the point details necessary from examination point of view. It is updated

according to latest examination pattern and analysis. Total Fee – 6500/-It

contains booklets for all important units specified as per syllabus ,

Previous year papers, General aptitude, Assignment.

- Study material Master Cadre Coaching:Its unique, crisp,

**Eligibility Criteria and Selection Procedure :**

The minimum age of the applicants applying for the assistant professor exam should be 21 years. The maximum is set to be 42 years (in HPSC ). The following categories get relaxation in the upper age limit.

Educational Qualification

A candidate must have a good academic record with aggregate of 55% in their Master’s degree. In the case of a grading system, they should at least have an aggregate B grade.

A relaxation of 5% may be provided from 55% to 50% of the marks in determining good academic record for Scheduled castes/Scheduled Tribes and Physically Handicapped category candidates.

Along with this, the candidate should have qualified in exams such as NET, SLET or SET. Those candidates who have acquired their Ph.D. are exempted from the condition of qualifying in the NET exam. (Old Criteria)

Ph.D Degree has been made mandatory for promotion to Assistant Professor (Selection Grade) in colleges from 01.07.2021. Ph.D Degree will be mandatory for direct recruitment to Assistant Professors in Universities w.e.f 01.07.2021 (new Criteria)

The applicant must have studied Sanskrit or Hindi till the Higher secondary exam or High school exam.

To be eligible for the post of Asst. Professor, the candidate should either be:

- Citizen of India,
- Citizen of Nepal or
- Citizen of Bhutan

**Selection Process :**

The assistant professor selection process includes two stages. The first is a screening written test and the second is an interview. You can find the details of these stages below.

**Written Exam:** The written exam works as a screening test to select candidates for the next stage. All the applicants will have to attempt a question paper containing multiple choice based questions. These questions will range from general knowledge to their specific subjects. The commission has set the criteria of selection for the written exam as 50% of the total marks scored by the candidate out of 100.

**Interview**: The candidates who are selected after the written test will be called for an interview. The candidate will appear in front of a panel. They will be judged based on their practical knowledge and aptitude. The maximum marks for the interview are 12.5. Candidates scoring equal to the maximum marks will be selected in the interview round.

- All the questions are objective type.
- The exam paper is set in two languages, that is, Hindi and English, other than the language exams.
- The exam contains 100 questions, each carrying one mark.
- There is no negative marking in the assistant professor’s written exam.

**Syllabus For Written Test:**

Syllabus of Optional Subject

**CHEMISTRY**

**Physics : **

- Mathematical Methods of Physics Dimensional analysis. Vector algebra and vector calculus. Linear algebra, matrices, Cayley-Hamilton Theorem. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Linear ordinary differential equations of first & second order, Special functions (Hermite, Bessel, Laguerre and Legendre functions). Fourier series, Fourier and Laplace transforms. Elements of complex analysis, analytic functions; Taylor & Laurent series; poles, residues and evaluation of integrals. Elementary probability theory, random variables, binomial, Poisson and normal distributions. Central limit theorem.
- Classical Mechanics Newton’s laws. Dynamical systems, Phase space dynamics, stability analysis. Central force motions. Two body Collisions – scattering in laboratory and Centre of mass frames. Rigid body dynamicsmoment of inertia tensor. Non-inertial frames and pseudoforces. Variational principle. Generalized coordinates. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism and equations of motion. Conservation laws and cyclic coordinates. Periodic motion: small oscillations, normal modes. Special theory of relativityLorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics and mass–energy equivalence.

III. Electromagnetic Theory Electrostatics: Gauss’s law and its applications, Laplace and Poisson equations, boundary value problems. Magnetostatics: Biot-Savart law, Ampere’s theorem. Electromagnetic induction. Maxwell’s equations in free space and linear isotropic media; boundary conditions on the fields at interfaces. Scalar and vector potentials, gauge invariance. Electromagnetic waves in free space. Dielectrics and conductors. Reflection and refraction, polarization, Fresnel’s law, interference, coherence, and diffraction. Dynamics of charged particles in static and uniform electromagnetic fields.

- Quantum Mechanics Wave-particle duality. Schrödinger equation (time-dependent and time-independent). Eigenvalue problems (particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, etc.). Tunneling through a barrier. Wave-function in coordinate and momentum representations. Commutators and Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Dirac notation for state vectors. Motion in a central potential: orbital angular momentum, angular momentum algebra, spin, addition of angular momenta; Hydrogen atom. Stern-Gerlach experiment. Timeindependent perturbation theory and applications. Variational method. Time dependent perturbation theory and Fermi’s golden rule, selection rules. Identical particles, Pauli exclusion principle, spin-statistics connection.
- Thermodynamic and Statistical Physics Laws of thermodynamics and their consequences. Thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell relations, chemical potential, phase equilibria. Phase space, micro- and macro-states. Micro-canonical, canonical and grand-canonical ensembles and partition functions. Free energy and its connection with thermodynamic quantities. Classical and quantum statistics. Ideal Bose and Fermi gases. Principle of detailed balance. Blackbody radiation and Planck’s distribution law.
- Electronics and Experimental Methods Semiconductor devices (diodes, junctions, transistors, field effect devices, homo- and hetero-junction devices), device structure, device characteristics, frequency dependence and applications. Opto-electronic devices (solar cells, photo-detectors, LEDs). Operational amplifiers and their applications. Digital techniques and applications (registers, counters, comparators and similar circuits). A/D and D/A converters. Microprocessor and microcontroller basics. Data interpretation and analysis. Precision and accuracy. Error analysis, propagation of errors. Least squares fitting,

ADVANCED TOPICS

- Mathematical Methods of Physics Green’s function. Partial differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in two and three dimensions). Elements of computational techniques: root of functions, interpolation, extrapolation, integration by trapezoid and Simpson’s rule, Solution of first order differential equation using RungeKutta method. Finite difference methods. Tensors. Introductory group theory: SU(2), O(3).
- Classical Mechanics Dynamical systems, Phase space dynamics, stability analysis. Poisson brackets and canonical transformations. Symmetry, invariance and Noether’s theorem. Hamilton-Jacobi theory.

III. Electromagnetic Theory Dispersion relations in plasma. Lorentz invariance of Maxwell’s equation. Transmission lines and wave guides. Radiation- from moving charges and dipoles and retarded potentials.

- Quantum Mechanics Spin-orbit coupling, fine structure. WKB approximation. Elementary theory of scattering: phase shifts, partial waves, Born approximation. Relativistic quantum mechanics: Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. Semi-classical theory of radiation.
- Thermodynamic and Statistical Physics First- and second-order phase transitions. Diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and ferromagnetism. Ising model. Bose-Einstein condensation. Diffusion equation. Random walk and Brownian motion. Introduction to nonequilibrium processes.
- Electronics and Experimental Methods Linear and nonlinear curve fitting, chi-square test. Transducers (temperature, pressure/vacuum, magnetic fields, vibration, optical, and particle detectors). Measurement and control. Signal conditioning and recovery. Impedance matching, amplification (Op-amp based, instrumentation amp, feedback), filtering and noise reduction, shielding and grounding. Fourier transforms, lock-in detector, box-car integrator, modulation techniques. High frequency devices (including generators and detectors).

VII. Atomic & Molecular Physics Quantum states of an electron in an atom. Electron spin. Spectrum of helium and alkali atom. Relativistic corrections for energy levels of hydrogen atom, hyperfine structure and isotopic shift, width of spectrum lines, LS & JJ couplings. Zeeman, Paschen-Bach & Stark effects. Electron spin resonance. Nuclear magnetic resonance, chemical shift. Frank-Condon principle. Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Electronic, rotational, vibrational and Raman spectra of diatomic molecules, selection rules. Lasers: spontaneous and stimulated emission, Einstein A & B coefficients. Optical pumping, population inversion, rate equation. Modes of resonators and coherence length.

VIII. Condensed Matter Physics Bravais lattices. Reciprocal lattice. Diffraction and the structure factor. Bonding of solids. Elastic properties, phonons, lattice specific heat. Free electron theory and electronic specific heat. Response and relaxation phenomena. Drude model of electrical and thermal conductivity. Hall effect and thermoelectric power. Electron motion in a periodic potential, band theory of solids: metals, insulators and semiconductors. Superconductivity: type-I and type-II superconductors. Josephson junctions. Superfluidity. Defects and dislocations. Ordered phases of matter: translational and orientational order, kinds of liquid crystalline order. Quasi crystals.

- Nuclear and Particle Physics Basic nuclear properties: size, shape and charge distribution, spin and parity. Binding energy, semiempirical mass formula, liquid drop model. Nature of the nuclear force, form of nucleon-nucleon potential, charge-independence and charge-symmetry of nuclear forces. Deuteron problem. Evidence of shell structure, single-particle shell model, its validity and limitations. Rotational spectra. Elementary ideas of alpha, beta and gamma decays and their selection rules. Fission and fusion. Nuclear reactions, reaction mechanism, compound nuclei and direct reactions. Classification of fundamental forces. Elementary particles and their quantum numbers (charge, spin, parity, isospin, strangeness, etc.). Gellmann-Nishijima formula. Quark model, baryons and mesons. C, P, and T invariance. Application of symmetry arguments to particle reactions. Parity non-conservation in weak interaction.
**ZOOLOGY**- MOLECULES AND THEIR INTERACTION RELEVANT TO BIOLOGY
- Structure of atoms, molecules and chemical bonds. B. Composition, structure and function of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins). C. Stablizing interactions (Van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction, etc.). D. Principles of biophysical chemistry (pH, buffer, reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, colligative properties). E. Bioenergetics, glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, coupled reaction, group transfer, biological energy transducers. F. Principles of catalysis, enzymes and enzyme kinetics, enzyme regulation, mechanism of enzyme catalysis, isozymes. G. Conformation of proteins (Ramachandran plot, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure; domains; motif and folds). H. Conformation of nucleic acids (A-, B-, Z-,DNA), t-RNA, micro-RNA). I. Stability of protein and nucleic acid structures. J. Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides and vitamins.
- CELLULAR ORGANIZATION
- Membrane structure and function: Structure of model membrane, lipid bilayer and membrane protein diffusion, osmosis, ion channels, active transport, ion pumps, mechanism of sorting and regulation of intracellular transport, electrical properties of membranes. B. Structural organization and function of intracellular organelles: Cell wall, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, plastids, vacuoles, chloroplast, structure & function of cytoskeleton and its role in motility. C. Organization of genes and chromosomes: Operon, interrupted genes, gene families, structure of chromatin and chromosomes, unique and repetitive DNA, heterochromatin, euchromatin, transposons. D. Cell division and cell cycle: Mitosis and meiosis, their regulation, steps in cell cycle, and control of cell cycle.
- FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES
- DNA replication, repair and recombination: Unit of replication, enzymes involved, replication origin and replication fork, fidelity of replication, extrachromosomal replicons, DNA damage and repair mechanisms. B. RNA synthesis and processing: Transcription factors and machinery, formation of initiation complex, transcription activators and repressors, RNA polymerases, capping, elongation and termination, RNA processing, RNA editing, splicing, polyadenylation, structure and function of different types of RNA, RNA transport. C. Protein synthesis and processing: Ribosome, formation of initiation complex, initiation factors and their regulation, elongation and elongation factors, termination, genetic code, aminoacylation of tRNA, tRNA-identity, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, translational proof-reading, translational inhibitors, post- translational modification of proteins. D. Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level: Regulation of phages, viruses, prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression, role of chromatin in regulating gene expression and gene silencing.
- CELL COMMUNICATION AND CELL SIGNALING
- Cell signaling: Hormones and their receptors, cell surface receptor, signaling through G-protein coupled receptors, signal transduction pathways, second messengers, regulation of signaling pathways, bacterial and plant two-component signaling systems, bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing. B. Cellular communication: Regulation of hematopoiesis, general principles of cell communication, cell adhesion and roles of different adhesion molecules, gap junctions, extracellular matrix, integrins, neurotransmission and its regulation. C. Cancer: Genetic rearrangements in progenitor cells, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, cancer and the cell cycle, virus-induced cancer, metastasis, interaction of cancer cells with normal cells, apoptosis, therapeutic interventions of uncontrolled cell growth. D. Innate and adaptive immune system: Cells and molecules involved in innate and adaptive immunity, antigens, antigenicity and immunogenicity. B and T cell epitopes, structure and function of antibody molecules, generation of antibody diversity, monoclonal antibodies, antibody engineering, antigen-antibody interactions, MHC molecules, antigen processing and presentation, activation and differentiation of B and T cells, B and T cell receptors, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, primary and secondary immune modulation, the complement system, Toll-like receptors, cell-mediated effector functions, inflammation, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity, immune response during bacterial (tuberculosis), parasitic (malaria) and viral (HIV) infections, congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies, vaccines.
- DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
- Basic concepts of development: Potency, commitment, specification, induction, competence, determination and differentiation; morphogenetic gradients; cell fate and cell lineages; stem cells; genomic equivalence and the cytoplasmic determinants; imprinting; mutants and transgenics in analysis of development. B. Gametogenesis, fertilization and early development: Production of gametes, cell surface molecules in sperm-egg recognition in animals; embryo sac development and double fertilization in plants; zygote formation, cleavage, blastula formation, embryonic fields, gastrulation and formation of germ layers in animals; embryogenesis. C. Morphogenesis and organogenesis in animals: Cell aggregation and differentiation in Dictyostelium; axes and pattern formation in Drosophila, amphibia and chick; organogenesis – vulva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans; eye lens induction, limb development and regeneration in vertebrates; differentiation of neurons, post embryonic development-larval formation, metamorphosis; environmental regulation of normal development; sex determination. D. Programmed cell death, aging and senescence.
- SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY – ANIMAL
- Blood and circulation: Blood corpuscles, haemopoiesis and formed elements, plasma function, blood volume, blood volume regulation, blood groups, haemoglobin, immunity, haemostasis. B. Cardiovascular System: Comparative anatomy of heart structure, myogenic heart, specialized tissue, ECG – its principle and significance, cardiac cycle, heart as a pump, blood pressure, neural and chemical regulation of all above. C. Respiratory system: Comparison of respiration in different species, anatomical considerations, transport of gases, exchange of gases, waste elimination, neural and chemical regulation of respiration. D. Nervous system: Neurons, action potential, gross neuroanatomy of the brain and spinal cord, central and peripheral nervous system, neural control of muscle tone and posture. E. Sense organs: Vision, hearing and tactile response. F. Excretory system: Comparative physiology of excretion, kidney, urine formation, urine concentration, waste elimination, micturition, regulation of water balance, blood volume, blood pressure, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance. G. Thermoregulation: Comfort zone, body temperature – physical, chemical, neural regulation, acclimatization. H. Stress and adaptation I. Digestive system: Digestion, absorption, energy balance, BMR. J. Endocrinology and reproduction: Endocrine glands, basic mechanism of hormone action, hormones and diseases; reproductive processes, neuroendocrine regulation.
- INHERITANCE BIOLOGY
- Mendelian principles: Dominance, segregation, independent assortment, deviation from Mendelian inheritance. B. Concept of gene: Allele, multiple alleles, pseudoallele, complementation tests. C. Extensions of Mendelian principles: Codominance, incomplete dominance, gene interactions, pleiotropy, genomic imprinting, penetrance and expressivity, phenocopy, linkage and crossing over, sex linkage, sex limited and sex influenced characters. D. Gene mapping methods: Linkage maps, tetrad analysis, mapping with molecular markers, mapping by using somatic cell hybrids. E. Extra chromosomal inheritance: Inheritance of mitochondrial and chloroplast genes, maternal inheritance. F. Human genetics: Pedigree analysis, lod score for linkage testing, karyotypes, genetic disorders. G. Quantitative genetics: Polygenic inheritance, heritability and its measurements, QTL mapping. H. Mutation: Types, causes and detection, mutant types – lethal, conditional, biochemical, loss of function, gain of function, germinal verses somatic mutants, insertional mutagenesis. I. Structural and numerical alterations of chromosomes: Deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation, ploidy and their genetic implications. J. Recombination: Homologous and non-homologous recombination, including transposition, sitespecific recombination.
- DIVERSITY OF LIFE FORMS
- Principles and methods of taxonomy:Concepts of species and hierarchical taxa, biological nomenclature, classical and quantititative methods of taxonomy of plants, animals. B. Levels of structural organization: Unicellular, colonial and multicellular forms; levels of organization of tissues, organs and systems; comparative anatomy. C. Outline classification of plants, animals and microorganisms: Important criteria used for classification in each taxon; classification of animals, evolutionary relationships among taxa. D. Natural history of Indian subcontinent: Major habitat types of the subcontinent, geographic origins and migrations of species; common Indian mammals, birds; seasonality and phenology of the subcontinent. E. Organisms of health and agricultural importance: Common parasites and pathogens of humans, domestic animals and crops.
- ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES
- The Environment: Physical environment; biotic environment; biotic and abiotic interactions. B. Habitat and niche: Concept of habitat and niche; niche width and overlap; fundamental and realized niche; resource partitioning; character displacement. C. Population ecology: Characteristics of a population; population growth curves; population regulation; life history strategies (r and K selection); concept of metapopulation – demes and dispersal, interdemic extinctions, age structured populations. D. Species interactions: Types of interactions, interspecific competition, herbivory, carnivory, pollination, symbiosis. E. Community ecology: Nature of communities; community structure and attributes; levels of species diversity and its measurement; edges and ecotones. F. Ecological succession: Types; mechanisms; changes involved in succession; concept of climax. G. Ecosystem: Structure and function; energy flow and mineral cycling (CNP); primary production and decomposition; structure and function of some Indian ecosystems: terrestrial (forest, grassland) and aquatic (fresh water, marine, eustarine). H. Biogeography: Major terrestrial biomes; theory of island biogeography; biogeographical zones of India. I. Applied ecology: Environmental pollution; global environmental change; biodiversity-status, monitoring and documentation; major drivers of biodiversity change; biodiversity management approaches. J. Conservation biology: Principles of conservation, major approaches to management, Indian case studies on conservation/management strategy (Project Tiger, Biosphere reserves).
- EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOUR
- Emergence of evolutionary thoughts: Lamarck; Darwin–concepts of variation, adaptation, struggle, fitness and natural selection; Mendelism; spontaneity of mutations; the evolutionary synthesis. B. Origin of cells and unicellular evolution: Origin of basic biological molecules; abiotic synthesis of organic monomers and polymers; concept of Oparin and Haldane; experiment of Miller (1953); the first cell; evolution of prokaryotes; origin of eukaryotic cells; evolution of unicellular eukaryotes; anaerobic metabolism, photosynthesis and aerobic metabolism. C. Paleontology and evolutionary history: The evolutionary time scale; eras, periods and epoch; major events in the evolutionary time scale; origins of unicellular and multicellular organisms; major groups of plants and animals; stages in primate evolution including Homo. D. Molecular Evolution: Concepts of neutral evolution, molecular divergence and molecular clocks; molecular tools in phylogeny, classification and identification; protein and nucleotide sequence analysis; origin of new genes and proteins; gene duplication and divergence. E. The Mechanisms: Population genetics – populations, gene pool, gene frequency; HardyWeinberg law; concepts and rate of change in gene frequency through natural selection, migration and random genetic drift; adaptive radiation and modifications; isolating mechanisms; speciation; allopatricity and sympatricity; convergent evolution; sexual selection; co-evolution.
- APPLIED BIOLOGY:
- Application of immunological principles (vaccines, diagnostics). tissue and cell culture methods for plants and animals. B. Transgenic animals and plants, molecular approaches to diagnosis and strain identification. C. Genomics and its application to health and agriculture, including gene therapy. D. Bioresource and uses of biodiversity. E. Bioremediation and phytoremediation. F. Biosensors.
- METHODS IN BIOLOGY
- Molecular biology and recombinant DNA methods: Isolation and purification of RNA , DNA (genomic and plasmid) and proteins, different separation methods; analysis of RNA, DNA and proteins by one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing gels; molecular cloning of DNA or RNA fragments in bacterial and eukaryotic systems; expression of recombinant proteins using bacterial, animal and plant vectors; isolation of specific nucleic acid sequences; generation of genomic and cDNA libraries in plasmid, phage, cosmid, BAC and YAC vectors; in vitro mutagenesis and deletion techniques, gene knock out in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms; protein sequencing methods, detection of post-translation modification of proteins; DNA sequencing methods, strategies for genome sequencing; methods for analysis of gene expression at RNA and protein level, large scale expression analysis, such as micro array based techniques; isolation, separation and analysis of carbohydrate and lipid molecules; RFLP, RAPD and AFLP techniques B. Histochemical and immunotechniques: Antibody generation, detection of molecules using ELISA, RIA, western blot, immunoprecipitation, floweytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, detection of molecules in living cells, in situ localization by techniques such as FISH and GISH. C. Biophysical methods: Analysis of biomolecules using UV/visible, fluorescence, circular dichroism, NMR and ESR spectroscopy, structure determination using X-ray diffraction and NMR; analysis using light scattering, different types of mass spectrometry and surface plasma resonance methods. D. Statistical Methods: Measures of central tendency and dispersal; probability distributions (Binomial, Poisson and normal); sampling distribution; difference between parametric and nonparametric statistics; confidence interval; errors; levels of significance; regression and correlation; t-test; analysis of variance; X 2 test;; basic introduction to Muetrovariate statistics, etc. E. Radio-labeling techniques: Properties of different types of radioisotopes normally used in biology, their detection and measurement; incorporation of radioisotopes in biological tissues and cells, molecular imaging of radioactive material, safety guidelines. F. Microscopic techniques: Visulization of cells and subcellular components by light microscopy, resolving powers of different microscopes, microscopy of living cells, scanning and transmission microscopes, different fixation and staining techniques for EM, freeze-etch and freeze-fracture methods for EM, image processing methods in microscopy.

**BOTANY**

- Algae in diversified habitats (Terrestrial, fresh water, marine); Thallus organization, Cell structure and reproduction; criteria in classification of Algae; Economic Importance of Algae.

2 General characteristic of Fungi, Cell ultra structure, cell wall compostion, reproduction, hatrothallism, parasexuality, recent trends in classification, economic importance of fungi, mycorrhizae and lichens.

3 Archaebacteria, eubacteria and cyanobacteria, ultra structure and reproduction, Prions, L-Forms, Viriordes, characteristics and ultra structure of virions, Mycoplasma and Phytoplasma – General characterisaiton and role in causing planet diseases, microbiology of water, air, soil and revenge

4 General account of diseases caused by plant pathogens, molecular basis of host parasite interaction, pathogen attack and defence mechanism, diseases of important field crops of Rajasthan (Red rot of Sugar cane, rust of wheat, covered smart of wheat, loose smart of wheat, green ear disease of bazra, leaf sport and smart of jawar ergot and smart of bazra, root knot and rot diseases of vegetables); diseases management, role of information technology.

5 General characters, structure, reproduction, evolution and interrelationships in Bryophytes, Pteridophytes and Gynospersm Evolution of Stele; Heterospory and seed habit, principles of palaeo botany.

6 Taxonomic hieraechy, principles of nomenclature, Taxonomic tools, important systems of classification (Bentham and Hooker, Engler and prantl, Hutchinson and Takhtaran) Role of morphology, anatomy, embryology, palynology, cytology, phytochemistry, genom analysis and nucleic acid hybridization in taxonomy, taxonomy of some selected facilities of Rajasthan (Leguminoceae cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Asclepiadeceae, solonaceae, Euphyrbiaceae and Poaceae), phylogeny of Angiosperm.

7 General concept of plant morphology – origion and evolution of flower. premitive living angiosperms, foliar stamens, open carpels, organization of root and shoot apical meristems.

8 Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, folier pistial interaction, fertilization, endosperm development and embryogenesis, seed development and fruit formation, polyembryny apomixis, embryo culture, biochemistry and molecular biology of fruit maturation.

9 Basic concepts of ecology, ecological factors affecting plant growth, community characteristics, community classification, continuum concept, ecological niche, plant succession in various habitats, concept of climax, Structure and function of ecosystem, energy flow and biogeochemical cycles (N,P,C,S), primary production, principles of limiting factors, plant indicators, major biomes of the world.

10 Environmental pollution-Air, Water, Soil, Green House effect, Ozone layer depletion, Acid Rain, Concept of biodiversity with special reference to India, Hot spots, stretagies for conservation of Flora and Fauna, Bio monitoring, Environmental Impact Assessment.

11 Plant civilization, centres of origin, gene diversity, utilization, cultivation and improvement of plants of food (rice, wheat, bazra, pulses, green gram, moth and beans) Oil seeds (mustard and ground nut), drugs (Rauvolfia, Ephedra, papaver, Atropa, Cinchona), Fibre _ Cotton, jute and coir and plants of industrial value _ Tobacco, sugarcane, tea and coffee, Ethnobotany unexploited plants of potential economic value with special reference to Rajasthan, plants as a source of re-newable energy.

12 Plant-water relation, membrane transport and translocation of water and solutes.

13 Enzymes – Classification, mechanism of action, role in metabolism, enzyme, kinetics, regulation of enzyme activity, active sites, coenzymes, Activators and inhabitors, isozymes.

14 Photosynthesis – Pigments, photophosphorylation, path of carbon in photosynthesis, photorespiration, photosynthesis in C4 plants, CAM.

15 Nitrogen metabolism – amino acid metabolism and protein synthesis.

16 Respiration – Glycolysis, TC A cycle, Glycogen breakdown, inter conversion of hexoses and pentoses.

17 Seed dormancy and germination, hormonal regulation of growth and development physiological effects and mechanism of action of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid, plant rythms and biological clock, secondary metabolites, plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses.

18 Signal transduction : overview, receptors and G-proteins, specific signaling mechanism in bacteria and proteins.

19 Fat metabolism.

20 Ultra structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, cell membrane structure and function, cell organelles- structure and functions, Nuclear – structure, nuclear pores, DNA Structure – A,B and z forms, replication, demage and repair, transcription, splicing and nucleolus, cells cycle, structure of chromatin and its organization, specialized types of chromosomes, banding patterns, chromosomal oberrotion and polyploidy.

21 Genetics of eukaryote and prokaryote organelles, mapping of bacterio phage genome, genetic tranformation, conjugation and transduction in bacteria, genetics of mitochondria and cytoplasmic male sterility.

22 Techniques in cell biology-insitu hybridization FISH, GISH, Light, confocal, electron microscopy, genetic code, transcription and translation, operon model, RNA polymerase, reverse transcriptase.

23 Genetic Recombination and genetic mapping : Independent assortment and crossing over, molecular mechanism of recombination, chromosome mapping, linkage groups.

24 Molecular basis of spontaneous and induced mutation and their role in evolution, principles of plant breeding important conventional methods of self and cross pollinated and vegetatively propagated crops, mutation breeding.

25 Biotechnology : Basic concepts, principles and scope, plant cell and tissue culture, concept of totipotency, organogenesis and adventive embryogenesis, somatic hybridization – protoplast isolation, fusion and culture; application of plant tissue culture clonal propagetion; artificial seeds, production of hybrids and somaclone’s , hybrids, gene transfer by micro injection; production of secondary metabolites.

26 Recombination DNA Technology : Gene cloning, principles and techniques, construction of genomic/c DNA libraries, DNA synthesis and sequencing, polymerase chain reaction, DNA finger printing.

27 Genetic engineering of plants : Aims, strategies for development of transgenics, Agrobacterium, intellectual property rights and possible ecological risks and ethical concerns, microbial genetic manupulation, genomics and proteomics, Bioactive compounds.

28 Electron microscopy, phase contrast, fixation and staining, HPLC, electrophoresis, ELISA.

29 Principles and practices of statistical methods in biological research, samples and population, Basic statistics (averages, statistics of dispersion, coefficient of variation, standard error and deviation); confidence limits, probability, Distribution (Binomial, poison and Normal) Tests of statistical significance, simple correlation and regression, Analysis of variance.

Mathematics** **

UNIT – 1

Analysis: Elementary set theory, finite, countable and uncountable sets, Real number system as a complete ordered field, Archimedean property, supremum, infimum. Sequences and series, convergence, limsup, liminf. Bolzano Weierstrass theorem, Heine Borel theorem. Continuity, uniform continuity, differentiability, mean value theorem. Sequences and series of functions, uniform convergence. Riemann sums and Riemann integral, Improper Integrals. Monotonic functions, types of discontinuity, functions of bounded variation. Lebesgue measure, Lebesgue integral. Functions of several variables, directional derivative, partial derivative, derivative as a linear transformation, Inverse and Implicit Function theorems. Metric spaces, compactness, connectedness. Normed linear Spaces. Spaces of continuous functions as examples. Linear Algebra: Vector spaces, subspaces, linear dependence, basis, dimension, algebra of linear transformations. Algebra of matrices, rank and determinant of matrices, linear equations. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Cayley-Hamilton theorem. Matrix representation of linear transformations. Change of basis, canonical forms, diagonal forms, triangular forms, Jordan forms. Inner product spaces, orthonormal basis. Quadratic forms, reduction and classification of quadratic forms

UNIT – 2

Complex Analysis: Algebra of complex numbers, the complex plane, polynomials, power series, transcendental functions such as exponential, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions. Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations. Contour integral, Cauchy’s theorem, Cauchy’s Integral Formula, Liouville’s theorem, Maximum Modulus Principle, Schwarz lemma, Open mapping theorem. Taylor series, Laurent series, calculus of residues. Conformal mappings, Mobius transformations. Algebra: Permutations, Combinations, Pigeon-Hole principle, Inclusion-Exclusion principle, derangements. Fundamental theorem of Arithmetic, divisibility in Z, Congruences, Chinese Remainder Theorem, Euler’s Ø- function, Primitive roots. Groups, subgroups, normal subgroups, quotient groups, homomorphisms, cyclic groups, permutation groups, Cayley’s theorem, class equations, Sylow theorems. Rings, Ideals, Prime and Maximal ideals, Quotient rings, Unique factorization domain, Principal ideal domain, Euclidean domain. Polynomial rings and irreducibility criteria. Fields, finite fields, Field extensions, Galois Theory. Topology: Basis, Dense sets, Subspace and Product topology, Separation axioms, Connectedness and Compactness.

UNIT – 3

Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs): Existence and uniqueness of solutions of initial value problems for first order ordinary differential equations, singular solutions of first order ODEs, system of first order ODEs. General theory of homogenous and non-homogeneous linear ODEs, variation of parameters, Sturm-Liouville boundary value problems, Green’s function. Partial Differential Equations (PDEs): Lagrange and Charpit methods for solving first order PDEs, Cauchy problem for first order PDEs. Classification of second order PDEs, General solution of higher order PDEs with constant coefficients, Method of separation of variables for Laplace, Heat and Wave equations. Numerical Analysis : Numerical solutions of algebraic equations, Method of iteration and Newton-Raphson method, Rate of convergence, Solution of systems of linear algebraic equations using Gauss Elimination and Gauss-Seidel methods, Finite differences, Lagrange, Hermite and Spline interpolation, Numerical differentiation and Integration, Numerical solutions of ODEs using Picard, Euler, modified Euler and Runge-Kutta methods. Calculus of Variations: Variation of a functional, Euler-Lagrange equation, Necessary and sufficient conditions for Extrema. Variational methods for boundary value problems in ordinary and partial differential equations. Linear Integral Equations: Linear integral equation of the first and second kind of Fredholm and Volterra type, Solutions with Separable kernels. Characteristic numbers and Eigen functions, Resolvent kernel. Classical Mechanics: Generalized coordinates, Lagrange’s equations, Hamilton’s canonical equations, Hamilton’s principle and Principle of least action, Two-dimensional motion of rigid bodies, Euler’s dynamical equations for the motion of a rigid body about an axis, Theory of small oscillations.

UNIT – 4 Descriptive statistics, Exploratory data analysis Sample space, Discrete probability, Independent events, Bayes theorem. Random variables and distribution functions (Univariate and Multivariate); Expectation and Moments. Independent random variables, Marginal and conditional distributions. Characteristic functions. Probability inequalities (Tchebyshef, Markov, Jensen). Modes of convergence, Weak and Strong laws of large numbers, Central Limit theorems (i.i.d. case). Markov chains with finite and countable state space, classification of states, limiting behaviour of n-step transition probabilities, stationary distribution, Poisson and birth-and-death processes. Standard discrete and continuous univariate distributions. Sampling distributions, standard errors and asymptotic distributions, distribution of order statistics and range. Methods of estimation, properties of estimators, confidence intervals. Tests of hypotheses: most powerful and uniformly most powerful tests, likelihood ratio tests. Analysis of discrete data and chi-square test of goodness of fit. Large sample tests. Simple nonparametric tests for one and two sample problems, rank correlation and test for independence. Elementary Bayesian inference. Gauss-Markov models, estimability of parameters, best linear unbiased estimators, confidence intervals, tests for linear hypotheses. Analysis of variance and covariance. Fixed, random and mixed effects models. Simple and multiple linear regression. Elementary regression diagnostics. Logistic regression. Multivariate normal distribution, Wishart distribution and their properties. Distribution of quadratic forms. Inference for parameters, partial and multiple correlation coefficients and related tests. Data reduction techniques: Principle component analysis, Discriminant analysis, Cluster analysis, Canonical correlation. Simple random sampling, stratified sampling and systematic sampling. Probability proportional to size sampling. Ratio and regression methods. Completely randomized designs, randomized block designs and Latin-square designs. Connectedness and orthogonality of block designs, BIBD. 2K factorial experiments: confounding and construction. Hazard function and failure rates, censoring and life testing, series and parallel systems. Linear programming problem, simplex methods, duality. Elementary queuing and inventory models. Steady-state solutions of Markovian queuing models: M/M/1, M/M/1 with limited waiting space, M/M/C, M/M/C with limited waiting space, M/G/1. Unit –5 Differential Systems:–Linear system of ordinary differential equations, Fundamental matrix of a homogeneous system, Wronskian, Method of variation of constants for non-homogeneous system, Adjoint systems, Critical points of plane autonomous system, Classification of critical points, foci, nodes, saddle points, Stability of critical points. Programming in C:—Variables, Constants, Expressions, Data types, Operators and Expressions, Control flow, Arrays and Functions Advanced Abstract Algebra:– Modules, Homomorphisms of modules, Simple modules, Completely reducible(semi-simple)modules, Free modules, Chain conditions in modules Advanced Complex Analysis:–Gamma function and its properties, Functional equation for gamma function, Integral version of gamma function, Riemann-zeta function, Riemann functional equation. Functional Analysis:— Banach spaces, Bounded and Continuous linear transformations, Conjugate spaces, Hilbert spaces.

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