How to determine if the amount of surface movement is adequate?


Lifetime Charter Member
Lifetime Member
Jan 23, 2005
Hi folks, since Tom mentioned that it is wiser to have some moderate surface movement going when injecting CO2 and then shutting it off at night, would like to know from you folks how do you determine how much is enough? (Moderate surface movement is difficult to picture in reality.. :D ). Any folks have any pictures to show or even maybe a movie clip? I see this as an issue as excessive movement can lower a response time of a reactor to hit its good target range within an hour or so. Tom, how about showing some pictures, spraybar placements and etc.

I wonder if there is a practical step-by-step setup (pictures) of how a proper planted tank should be done as an article. CO2 is a big issue if not properly done and I'm interested in how Tom does it effortlessly.

Peter Gwee