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Old Newsletters

Some of the original newsletters

  1. Methods for Filtration in Planted Aquariums - Volume 2, Issue 9 - September 2006

    Considerable debate in the last 25 years has revolved around filtration of planted aquariums. This is understandable due to the livestock and plant biomass differences hobbyists and aquaculturalist have in their systems as well their expectations. Aquatic macrophytes are used extensively for wastewater treatment (Reddy et al, 1984, 1989, 1991, 1992). As such, some aquarists forgo any filtration in lieu of the macrophytes being the primary filtration component for removal of fish “waste”....
  2. Applying Restoration Ecology to Planted Aquariums - Volume 3, Issue 5

    The use of Restoration or perhaps a better word would be Creation Ecology as concept and perhaps a new paradigm for the planted aquarist has rarely been considered for aquariums. Why might this be useful? Aquarist have particular goals that they hope to achieve and have the ecosystem provide certain services. The consideration of goals is the most debatable issue in this hobby today. This leads to confusion on many levels and the discussion of goals is seldom effectively addressed in books...
  3. The Freshwater Red algae: Rhodophyta - Volume 3, Issue 3

    Red algae are typically a multicellular marine group but several species and genera are present in freshwater systems. Primarily the genera Audouinella and Compsopogon are the main two freshwater algae present in planted aquariums and often the bane of many aquarist. However, many aquarist enjoy Audouinella alga on their rocks and driftwood for adding a more “natural feel” to their decor. Some more common names for these are Black brush algae (generally shortened to the acronym: BBA) for...
  4. Growth Relations of Aquatic Macrophytes Volume 1 - Volume 2, Issue 10 - October 2006

    How do plants grow? Some may find this a seemingly simple question. Often the best questions are deceptively simple. Growth of macrophytes is defined by the same definitions in terrestrial plants and algae: The progressive irreversible development of an organism (Taiz and Zeiger, 1998). Lambers, Chapin and Pons (1998) define growth as increment in plant mass, volume, length and/or area. If a plant takes up water, it may gain mass, it may increase in length, volume, area with no net gain in...
  5. Methods of delivery of Carbon dioxide (CO2) - Volume 1, Issue 10 - October 2005

    Since the introduction of Horst and Kipper’s book in 1986, The Optimum Aquarium, the use of CO2 fertilization to increase submersed plant growth has gained considerable public popularity. The use of CO2 to enhance plant growth in algal cultures has been in use since at least the 1960’s and likely was used prior (Hunter and Provasoli 1964). Scientist have been adding CO2 as well as other aquarist for submersed plant growth fertilization and enhancement since at least the early 1970’s but few...
  6. Growth Relations of Aquatic Macrophytes Volume II - Volume 2, Issue 11 - November 2006

    Plant hormones in the past have hailed as the signaling chemicals in plants that control all aspects of growth. What are they? A hormone is a signaling molecule released from one cell that affects the growth and development of target cells which have appropriate receptors. The important factors affecting plant growth and development include heredity, hormones, nutrition, and environment, not just hormones alone. The focus here is on hormones and their role in aquatic plants and plants in...
  7. Calcium’s Role in Aquatic Macrophytes - Volume 1, Issue 11 - November 2005

    Calcium is an essential plant nutrient. As the divalent cation (Ca2+), it is required for structural roles in the cell wall and membranes, as a counter-cation for inorganic and organic anions in the vacuole, and as an intracellular messenger in the cytosol (Marschner, 1995). Calcium plays a highly significant role in aquatic macrophyte metabolism (Tamura et al, 2001; Kauss 1987). Typical world wide surface water concentration are around 15 ppm, although some surface waters with Calcium...
  8. Copper and Zinc’s Role in Aquatic Macrophyte - Volume 2, Issue 5 - May 2006

    Copper has a long history in aquatic management due to its ability to kill algae and aquatic weeds. Zinc has a less prominent history but more research has been in the last several years in roles of each in transport, cycling and their importance. While both are nutrients, higher concentrations they are toxic. Most trace metals fall into this group. Copper is required for mitochondrial electron transport, pathogen defense, cell wall lignification, vitamin C metabolism, ethylene perception,...
  9. Fish Waste and Macrophytes - Volume 3, Issue 2 - March 2007

    A neglected 4 gallon non CO2 tank. No water changes have been done for 9 months. No algae, no work, very low cost, fish health is excellent (Killifish bred in here six times over that time period). For many planted aquarists’ goals, this is nirvana. Success has been achieved. Fish waste production rates equal plant nutrient demand rates. Yet for others seeking a more ordered garden design, this same aquarium may appear very poorly. Would CO2 and dosing help? Would more trimming and gardening...
  10. Sulfur’s role in Aquatic Macrophytes - Volume 2, Issue 3 - March 2006

    Sulfur is poorly understood in terms of aquarist although well studied in the academic realm and both terrestrial systems and in wetland cycling. Aquatic macrophytes utilize sulfur in the form of sulfate, (SO4). This oxidized form is reduced to Sulfur (S) and incorporated into amino acids required to manufacture proteins. Sulfur is also essential for the production of chlorophyll and utilization of phosphorus and other essential nutrients. It is essential in both Photosystems I and II as...
  11. Light and Photosynthesis - Volume 1, Issue 3 - March 2005

    Solar radiation is the major energy source to the aquatic environment. The productivity and internal metabolism are driven and controlled by energy derived directly from the solar energy utilized in photosynthesis. Water clarity in most lakes is controlled by phytoplankton, organic color and both organic and inorganic suspended particles (Jones and Bachmann 1978; Canfield and Hodgson 1983; Hoyer and Jones 1983). Lakes with low phytoplankton concentrations and low color values have high water...
  12. Boron and Molybdenum’s Role In Plants - Volume 2, Issue 6 - June 2006

    All vascular plants require boron (represented by “B” on the periodic chemical chart) (Augsten and Eichhorn, 1976; Dugger, 1983; Loomis and Durst, 1992), but this does not necessarily imply that boron is essential for the viability of all suspension-cultured higher plant cells. Some cell may not have the requirement(a fully grown cell for example), while most in general do. The entire plant has a B requirement. Of all known plant micronutrient deficiencies, that of boron is most widespread...
  13. Nitrogen Cycling in Planted Aquariums - Volume 1, Issue 6 - June 2005

    Nitrogen plays perhaps the next largest role in submersed aquatic plant health and growth after light and Carbon. Nitrogen is important as a macro nutrient for plant growth. Generally limiting phosphate (PO4-3) will not slow growth, whereas nitrogen limitation will limit growth, but as we shall see, the two are related and can drive the other’s uptake rate. Nitrogen is essential for the formation of amino acids and the purine and pyrimidine bases, and consequently for protein and nucleic...
  14. Sodium and chloride’s impact on aquatic macrophytes - Volume 2, Issue 7 - July 2006

    We have all seen salt, sodium chloride (NaCl). We know that the sodium and chloride ions which form salt have completely different physical and chemical properties than the metal and gas from which they were formed. This difference between salt and the elemental components seems to confuse many hobbyists and well meaning folks. The component parts of ionic compounds are called “ions”. Sodium chloride is an ionic compound formed when electrons from sodium atoms move to chlorine atoms (other...
  15. Aquatic Fungi: Decomposition of plant biomass - Volume 3, Issue 1 - January 2007

    Is this fish, A adonis considered a “Shredder”? Yes! Wood gnawing plecos increase the rate of decomposition of driftwood by allowing the fungi more access to the cellulose. Some are very suitable for planted tanks, while some in the Panaque genus are less suited when larger. One of the goals of this section is to introduce non pest fungi to the aquarist. Aquatic fungi play important roles in aquatic ecosystems and often are largely ignored by both hobbyists and even Limnologist. Aquatic...
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